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[ Schaol of Theology 




EMORY UNIVERSITY 



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1859 
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Incihnts of Witskxw Irabcl: 



IN A SERIES OF LETTERS. 



GEORGE F. PIERCE, D.D., 

ONE OF THE BISHOPS OF THE M. E. CHUKCH, SOXTTH. 



EDITED BY THOMAS 0. SUMMERS, D.D. 



SOUTHERN METHODIST PUBLISIIIXG HOUSE. 

1859. 



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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1857, by 

E. STETENSON & F. A. OWEX, Agents, 

In the Office of the Clerk of the District Coiu-t for the Middle District of Tennessee. 



STEREOTYPED AND PRINTED BY A. A. STITT, 
SOUTHERN METHODIST PUBLISHING HOUSE, NASHVILLE, TENN. 



n h n t s 



PKEFACE , PAGE Vll 

LETTER I. 

LEAVING HOME PARSON BROWN SWAPPING HATS — NASHVILLE THE 

CUMBERLAND LIFE OF NEWTON THE PROFANE MATE — ST. LOUIS. 13 

LETTER II. 

LEAVING ST. LOUIS HERMANN — PACIFIC RAILROAD UP THE MIS- 
SOURI PERILS OF NAVIGATION BOONVILLE — POLITE LANDLORD 

BOVINE MONSTERS THE PRAIRIES — THE OSAGE WARSAW DEEP- 
ENING THE RIVER — LOST KANSAS TRAVELLER 22 

LETTER III. 

BAD WEATHER — SPRINGFIELD — A BEAUTIFUL VALLEY BENTONVILLE 

THE PIOUS WIDOW PLENTY OF APPLES CHEROKEE INDIANS TAH- 

LEQUAH — INDIAN COUNCIL — FORT GIBSON — FAT LANDLORD — BEAU- 
TIFUL SCENERY CHIMNEY MOUNTAIN INDLA.N MISSION CONFER- 
ENCE 33 

LETTER IV. 

DROUGHT — INDL\N MISSION CONFERENCE INDIAN SCHOOLS — DECREASE 

OF HEATHEN AND INCREASE OF CHRISTIAN INDIANS — INDL\NS LEARN- 
ING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 41 

LETTER V. 

JAMES m'hENRY — INDIANS IN COUNCIL — CHILI m'iNTOSH — PREACHING 
TO THE INDIANS — ALTAR- WORK CONVERSIONS AMONG THEM 46 

LETTER VI. 

METHODIST PREACHERS: MORE NEEDED — GATHERING A CONGREGATION 

QUICKSANDS THE FIDDLER MAN WITH NO APPETITE INDIAN 

CABIN — SUPPER — COFFEE — LODGING — WHEN AN INDIAN CAN SPEAK 
ENGLISH 63 

(iii) 



T7Tt 



IV CONTENTS. 

LETTER VII. 

ON THE ROAD — CHOCTAW AGENCY — INDIAN GATHERING — TOBLEECHUB- 

BEE SCHOOLS AT NEW HOPE AND FORT COFFEE — DUST — VAN BUREN, 

ARKANSAS FORT SMITH ARKANSAS CONFERENCE — MISSIONARY AN- 
NIVERSARY — SABBATH SERVICES '. G3 

LETTER VIII. 

TO EL DORADO DIFFICULTIES AHEAD A GEORGIA FAMILY A LATE 

SERVICE — HARD TRAVEL MOUNT IDA A NARROW ESCAPE CADDO 

GAP 71 

LETTER IX. 

A LONELY ROAD DANGERS — LITTLE MISSOURI RIVER A WOMAN'S EX- 
PEDIENT — EL DORADO ^WACHITA CONFERENCE — "THE FINANCES" — 

TRACT AND MISSIONARY MEETINGS — THE COUNTRY 79 

LETTER X. 

CAMDEN — A COLLEGE SPEECH OFF TO TEXAS — SIGNS FOR SELECTING 

A LODGING — A CLEAN HOUSE FEATHER-BEDS HEROIC FEAT "THE 

WILDERNESS" MINDEN, LA. CROSS-ROADS 88 

LETTER XI. 

LOUISIANA — RED RIA'ER BOTTOM SHREVEPORT IMPROVEMENTS 

GREENWOOD THE CIRCUS — IN TEXAS 96 

LETTER XII. 

MARSHALL, TEXAS — EAST TEXAS CONFERENCE — REVIVALS AT CONFER- 
ENCE — OLD ACQUAINTANCES — THE SABINE RIVER PROPERTIES OF 

THE WATER TRAVELLING AND PREACHING AN EFFORT AT SING- 
ING 102 

LETTER XIII. 

MOVING FORWARD — FACE OF THE COUNTRY "MINE HOST" ON TRAIN- 
ING CHILDREN THE MAN WHO HAD SEEN A BISHOP EXHORTATION 

TO OUR EDITORS — WORKING WITH THE BAPTISTS AT MOSCOW.. Ill 

LETTER XIV. 

APPROACHING GALVESTON "GRAND CANe" CHURCH LIVING WITHOUT 

THE GOSPEL VAST PRAIRIES^SAN JACINTO BATTLE-FIELD — AT GAL- 
VESTON THE CONFERENCE THE STATE OF TEXAS 119 

LETTER XV. 

GALVESTON — HOMEWARD BOUND — NEW ORLEANS LAKE PONCHARTRAIN 

IN A FOG — MOBILE UP THE RIVER — DRINKING, SMOKING, ANI> 

GAMING — MONTGOMERY B^VILROADS 129 



CONTENTS. V 

LETTER XVI. 

LEAVING MONTGOMERY PASSENGER PUT OVERBOARD — WALKING ON 

CROSS-TIES — IN GEORGIA ONCE MORE — OBSTACLES — AT HOME... 137 

LETTER XVII. 

END OF THE FIRST TOUR — THOUGHTS ON EMIGRATION TO THE WEST — 
APPEAL TO LOCAL PREACHERS l^O 

LETTER XVIII. 

ANOTHER TOUR — CONFERENCE INTERESTS MUTUAL — METHODISM ALIKE 
EVERYWHERE — REASONS FOR WRITING — FIRST STAGES OF THE 
JOURNEY NASHVILLE — THE CUMBERLAND — LOUISVILLE 154 

LETTER XIX. 

TO INDIANAPOLIS — CONFUSION AN ELECTION TERRE HAUTE PRO- 
GRESS A DISTILLERY ILLINOIS — ST. LOUIS, AND THENCE TO JEFFER- 
SON CITY 1G2 

LETTER XX. 

TO KANSAS AN INFORMAL SERVICE KANSAS RUMORS — IMAGINARY 

DANGERS GOVERNOR GEARY — GOVERNOR SHANNON — THE "BORDER 

ruffians" KANSAS CITY — DESCRIPTION THEREOF 168 

LETTER XXI. 

FROM KANSAS CITY TO WESTPORT — FACE OF THE COUNTRY — BUSTLING 

XIMES AN ACQUAINTANCE BLACK CARPET-BAGS A SHARPE'S RIFLE 

SHAWNEE MISSION — A RICH FARM — A RIDE — THE QUAKER MIS- 
SION ATCHISON'S CAMP THE CLIMATE 176 

LETTER XXII. 

KICKAPOO — A NIGHT ALARM THE CONFERENCE — A SELF-DENYING 

MINISTRY — APPEAL FOR KANSAS 185 

LETTER XXIII. 

MISTAKES OF THE SOUTH AS TO KANSAS — SOLDIER- EMIGRANTS — ABO- 
LITION AGGRESSION — SOUTHERN MISTAKES — A LETTER ON KANSAS 
AFFAIRS — DIFFICULTIES OF TRAVELLING IN KANSAS — THE WRONG 
PARTY 1*'^3 

LETTER XXIV. 

WESTON — CHINESE SUGAR-CANE GROWTH OF THE WEST — WELL- 
MOUNTED PREACHERS — TAKING IN NEW APPOINTMENTS — RICH 

COUNTRY FRAUDS ON THE GOVERNMENT — GLASGOW, FAYETTE, 

PARIS, MEXICO MODERN CONFUSION OF TONGUES — CONFERENCE AT 

LOUISIANA 202 



Vi CONTENTS. 

LETTER XXV. 

TO THE ST. LOUIS CONFEREXCE — THE TPPER MISSISSIPPI — STATE FAIRS 

ST. LOriS CHARLESTON — THE CONFEREXCE WHERE COXFEREXCES 

SHOULD BE HELD — TO CAIRO CEOSSIXG THE OHIO RITER — TO 

JACKSON — MEMPHIS CONFERENCE 210 

LETTER XXVI. 

WHITE RITER — JACKSOXPORT BREAKFAST — TO BATESTILLE — THE 

CONFERENCE TO PRIXCETON TRAVELLING IN THE "TRICK" 

FIRST NIGHT OUT AND THE CATS 218 

LETTER XXVII. 

OUT OF THE "trick"' PREACHING AT SEARCY — FACE OF THE COUN- 
TRY — HICKORY PLAINS — RED OAK — LITTLE ROCK TULIP — ARREMED 

ON THE ROAD — PRINCETON' THE CONFERENCE — IN ANOTHER "TRI^"' 

THE STEAMER FOX — NAPOLEON 227 



LETTER XXVIII. 

RECRUITS — GAMBLERS — TICKSBURG GEN. m'm.VKIN's HOTEL BILL 

OF FARE TH0MA5T0WN NEW-FOUND KIN IRA BIRD MISSISSIPPI 

CONFERENCE — WORN-OUT LANDS — MUD-WAGON — CAPSIZED — A BLIND 
DRIVER 235 



LETTER XXIX. 

REALIZATION OF FOREBODINGS — PERSEVERANCE REWARDED ALMOST A 

DINNER — DISTRESSING CASUALTIES — HOLLY SPRINGS 2J:-1 

LETTER XXX. 

ANOTHER BREACH BUZZARDS' ROOST AGRICULTURAL ABUSES — TUS- 

KEGEE — THE ALABAMA CONFERENCE : ITS CHARACTERISTICS PLEA- 
SANT INCIDENTS — HOME AGAIN — THE END 252 



xtintt. 



The letters which make up this little volume 
were written at the suggestion, indeed, by the 
request, of the Editor of the Southern Christian 
Advocate. It was thought by him that they would 
give additional interest to his paper, increase its 
circulation, and so aid a great Church enterprise. 

Other reasons influenced me. Absent from 
home for months, travelling thousands of miles, 
visiting several Conferences, mingling with the 
people in distant States, seeing much that was 
unique in the physical aspects of the country and 
peculiar in the habits of society, it was pleasant to 
throw the mind back, retrace my wanderings, call 
up the incidents of the way, weave them into 
narrative, and recite, for the gratification and 
instruction of friends. 

Remembering the connectional character of the 

(vii) 



yiii PREFACE 

Methodist Cliurcli, I tliouglit it would be well to 
commune with, the preachers and people of the 
older Conferences concerning the wants and pros- 
pects of the new. I hoped to stir up the minds 
and hearts of some — called of God to preach and 
authorized by the Church to do so, nevertheless 
living in comparative idleness for lack of room to 
work — to look to the white fields of the West, and 
to go out and help gather the harvest. It was be- 
lieved, moreover, that such a record, by one famil- 
iarly known in the East by long service, would 
increase the spirit of unity and love between the 
different sections of the Church, as shomng the 
oneness of Methodism in her government and 
policy, doctrine and experience, ministers and 
labors, and, indeed, every thing which character- 
izes her before the world. Spread over a vast 
territory, embracing society in all its forms, from 
the pioneer settlements on the frontier to the 
highest civilization of the old Atlantic cities, it 
will be impossible to keep alive the reciprocal 
sympathies of a great Christian communion except 
as it shall appear to all that each section is working 
out on a common system the grand mission of 



PREFACE. ix 

Metliodism. V^e who circulate everywhere through 
the Connection may be supposed better prepared 
than others to report the signs of the times, and 
thus aid to promote the feeling of mutual interest 
so important to our unity and efficiency. 

Concerning the form and style of these commu- 
nications, of course opinions vary according to 
taste. Some will regard them as too minute in 
details, and too scanty in reflections. Some will 
object that there is too much of the playful : others 
will think this is their only redeeming quality. 
Some will think too much space is given to the 
every-day incidents of travel, and that I ought to 
have confined myself to a semi-official account of 
the phases of Methodism^ as modified by society 
here and there. Well, perhaps the complainants 
are all right and all wrong. K they will take the 
trouble to read, each will find something suited to 
his notion, in substance if not in dress. A simple, 
easy, epistolary style was adopted, as best suited to 
the ends in view. 

Literary reputation certainly was not thought of 
in furnishing these "incidents" for publication. 
The time consumed in the mere mechanical labor 



PREFACE. 



of writing, is tlie sum total of tlieir cost. Easy to 
write and easy to read, tliey were never intended 
to tax the brain of author or reader. Unpretending 
as they are, it is some consolation to be assured, as 
I often am, that they have been read with pleasure, 
and that in more ways than one they have done 
good. This is all I could ask or wish. 

The Book Editor, Dr. Summers, proposes to put 
the letters into more permanent form ; and I have 
consented to the arrangement, not because such a 
volume would be a contribution to Methodist lite- 
rature, but that, among many acquaintances, some 
few friends would like to have even such a memorial 
of one they have long known and will not hereafter 
often see. 

The Author. 

Sunshine, May 11, 1857. 



INCIDEA^TS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TMVEL. 



LETTER I. 

LEAVING HOME — PARSCiN BROWN — SWAPPING HATS NASH- 
VILLE — THE CUMBERLAND LIFE OF NEWTON THE PRO- 
FANE MATE ST. LOUIS. 

Havixg recently finished a trip of about four 
tliousancl miles — out and in, forth and back — I 
suppose I may take rank with those who have been 
from home. The transatlantic traveller is said to 
have been ''abroad,'' while he who wanders about 
this long, wide continent is merely a tourist or 
traveller. In either case the fashion is to take 
"notes by the way," and to publish. With per- 
mission, I will imitate the popular example, and 
tell what I saw, heard, felt, and thought, during 
my visit to the Indian Mission, Arkansas, Wachita, 
East Texas, and Texas Conferences. 

On the 20th September, 1855, accompanied by 

(13) 



14 INCIDENTS OF WESTEEN TRAVEL. 

my son Lovick, early in tlie morning, I took the 
stage for Double "Wells, on tlie Georgia Eailroad. 
A ride in an inferior vehicle, with horses the 
worse for wear, prepared us to appreciate the speed 
and comfort of the rail. Our driver was facetious, 
and entertained us with sundry witticisms on men 
and horses. One of the team, that morning, he 
had dubbed ''Parson Broion;" whether on account 
of his grave looks or his steady habits, I did not 
learn. The driver commented at large on the 
"Parson's" merits and demerits, the second branch 
of the subject affording much- the wider field for 
expatiation. His besetting sin, I learned, was 
laziness, and his chief infirmity, a short memory. 
However, by diligent application of the lash, by 
jerks, and clucks, and shouts, we reached the 
depot just in time for the cars to Atlanta. Fare- 
well to hacks and horses ; and if for ever, still be 
it so. Too slow for the "progress," and too rough 
for the luxury of the age — farewell. 

The Georgia Railroad and its scenery are too fa- 
miliar for description. We soon reached Madison, 
where I stopped to leave my daughter and to see 
my brothers. About midnight I and my travelling 
companion once more entered the cars and whirled 
away. On leaving home, I had put on my best 
beaver — in fact, a new hat — and on finding a seat, 



IIs^ClDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 15 

as is my Tront, I prepared for sleep. I liung my 
liat upon a hook, and composed myself to rest, 
^lien I came to myself, we were in Atlanta, the 
cars empty, my new hat gone, and an old one in its 
stead. I rushed out, and found everybody busy 
about luggage, and its transfer to other trains. 
Having secured my trunk, I went '' prospecting" for 
my hat. As all around me were in motion, I stood 
still. Presently a long, gawky man, though well 
dressed, came along, and I observed that his hat 
was too big for him and was new, and the old relic 
I had on was too small for me. But, satisfied fi^om 
the circumstances of the case that a mistake had 
not been made, but that some stealing had been 
done, I hesitated to accost the — gentleman. But 
the desire to have a hat that fitted, and that would 
"make the trip," as they say in Texas, overcame 
my reluctance. So, very significantly, I said to 
him, " You got hold of the wrong hat this morn- 
ing. Sir. This (handing him his wornout head- 
piece) will fit you better than the one you have on : 
suppose we exchange?" He told a storg, but gave 
me my hat. 

Xow for the State Road and Chattanooga. We 
are off, and, without accident or incident, reach 
the terminus of the road — dine, and are once more 
on the rail for ]^ashville. Lookout Mountain 



16 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

looms clarklj over us as we wind along its base, 
and the shadows of night thicken around us. 
Xow the moon struggles up the cloudy heavens, 
and while the valleys rest in yet deeper gloom, the 
circling ridges are gilded with silver light ; and, as 
we sweep round one of the many curves along this 
great highway, a mountain on fire greets our gaze. 
But the iron horse will not pause, and we leave 
the scene, with all its elements of heauty and 
grandeur. AVhat bridges, and curves, and gorges, 
along this route ! To weak nerves, how frightful ! 
Even the strong man feels safer when he is over. 

In the early dawn we reached the City of Rocks. 
Hiring a carriage, we drove up to the residence of 
Dr. Summers, and found him on his knees at the 
family altar. Of course we did not interrupt him, 
but waited patiently for the end. O that this 
pious custom of morning and evening devotions 
with wife, children, and servants were universal; 
at least, with Church members ! 

Prayer finished, we knocked, and the Doctor 
opened the door, and, with a welcome a la Summers, 
we entered the hospitable mansion. What a man 
for work is my host ! And yet he has time to eat, 
sleep, talk, or for any other odd job. His plan is 
elastic : he can expand it without derangement, or 
stop the machinery, if need be, without losing a 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 17 

half-daj to start it again. His system has none of 
tlie rio:iditv of mere form, but all the activity of a 
vital organism. He is not punctilious about little 
rules, but always busy ; not wedded to a set order, 
so there is motion and progress. Accordingly, 
he does more than any man I know, and slights 
nothing — does every thing well. He keeps that 
rule of a preacher — ^' Xever be unemployed, never 
be triflingly employed;"' and thus is an example 
to us all. 

It was my purpose to spend the Sabbath in 
Xash^^lle, but a boat, highly recommended, left in 
the afternoon of Saturday, the day of my arrival, 
and, by the advice of the brethren, I went aboard 
the " Sallie West," bound for St. Louis. 

At four P. M. we weighed anchor and drifted 
slowly beneath the wire bridge, in full view of the 
IMethodist Publishing House, and then we were 
tairly afloat upon the basin of the Cumberland. 
In the famous debate on the location of our 
Southern Book Concern, at the General Confer- 
ence in Columbus, some preacher called this river 
"Goose Creek," in derision. I found it, as I 
always had, navigable ; and from the height of its 
banks and the breadth of the stream, I should say 
that, winter and summer, it is, for steamboats, the 
most reliable river in the West, save only the 



18 INCIDENTS OP WESTERN TRAVEL. 

Father of TV^aters. At any rate, I liave fared 
better on it in the way of getting along without 
difficulty, than on the Ohio, Missouri, or any other 
river, except the Mississippi. 

I found nij^self a stranger among my fellow- 
passengers, and, as I had purchased books in 
ilTashville, I did not seek to make ■ new acquaint- 
ances, but made ready for reading. Among other 
books, I got the Life of Eobert Xewton, and I 
beg to commend it to every ]\Iethodist preacher. 
Circumstances did not allow preaching on the 
boat; so, having read some portions of the Holy 
Bible, I spent the Sabbath-day in perusing the 
interesting biography of a great and good man. 
l\T^iat a man — what an example was ]^ewton ! 
How much he did ! How hard and long he 
worked ! Did he do more than his duty ? AYlio 
thinks so ? And if he hardly reached the gospel 
rule of labors, what idlers are many of us who 
minister at the altar ! I confess to a feeling of 
humiliation in reviewing my life, as I read, and in 
my berth on that boat I pledged myself to a more 
active consecration. Xo doubt every preacher 
would feel as I did; at least — the brethren will 
pardon me — I know none who could make the 
comparison, unrebuked. I do not speak of results, 
but of effort. The issue of this book is timely. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 19 

The tendency everywhere is to contract the field 
of labor ; to do less ; to preach less frequently, and 
to rest longer. Read this book, ye sound, hearty, 
healthy Methodist preachers, who do not work so 
much as a co}iscientious supernumerary ought to do, 
and keep a good conscience if you can. May the 
dead ]^ewton — buried in English ground — still 
speak to the ministry and the Church in the living 
records of this American reprint of his biography. 

The mate of our boat could do more volunteer, 
expletive swearing than any man I ever heard. 
lie horrified me. Inwardly resolved to talk with 
him, I embraced the first opportunity, although 
expecting to be repelled. To my astonishment, he 
seemed subdued by the first word, and bewailed 
the follies of his life. He had been a Methodist ; 
but, an orphan boy, poor, and doomed to struggle 
unaided with the ills of life, he had drifted from 
place to place, from business to business ; and, 
cut oflf from religious association, he had fallen, 
fallen, till blasphemy and sin had become his 
daily history. how many wandering stars there 
are, shooting on to the blackness of darkness ! 
Whether my well-meant exhortation availed to 
reclaim this backslidden brother or not, it secured 
me and others from the din of his imprecations. 

The Sabbath evening came, and, ha\ang done 



20 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTEKN TRAVEL. 

what I could to improve the day, I rested from 
thought and care till morning light. Travelling 
by water to me grows irksome, after a day or two. 
Three meals a day — reading a little, talking a 
little, walking a little, and all the while, paddle, 
paddle, puff, puff: now stop to put off freight; 
then stop to take on something or somebody — one 
gets tired — at least I do — and the first step on solid 
ground brings a thrill of pleasure. 

On Tuesday night we reached St. Louis, and 
in the morning went ashore. "We drove up to 
Brother Polk's, with whom I stayed during the 
General Conference of 1850, and found him and 
his amiable wife warm-hearted and hospitable as 
ever. 

St. Louis is called, I believe, " The Giant of the 
West," and in truth it deserves the cognomen. 
Young, with vast proportions, rapidly growing, its 
fall dimensions no man can forecast. " The City 
Fathers" are plannino^ wiselv and munificentlv for 
its ornament, and for the future comfort of its 
multiplied population. This place is one of the 
strongholds of Romanism in America. Schools, 
convents, and priests abound. The black-robed 
ministers of Rome move stealthilv alone: the 
streets ; and I fancied that I could see an ominous 
shadow in advance, and yet deejDer gloom rushing 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 21 

after tliem. Protestantism should be reinforced 
in St. Louis. More strong, bold men are wanted, 
not to fight, but to pray ; not to quarrel, but to 
preacli "the truth as it is in Jesus." Heaven help 
Methodism to do her part in defeating the ''man 
of sin/' and in diflusing through all the "West a 
pure Christianity. 

On inquiring for the preachers, I found that all 
(pastors and the editor) had gone to the Missouri 
Conference. Pressed for time, I made haste to 
purchase a buggy and a pair of horses for the long 
land travel before me. On consultation, it was 
determined that I had better go up the Missouri 
river to Boonville, and take a prairie route, and 
thus avoid the Ozark Mountains. I lost a day or 
two in time, but gained largely on the score of 
road and comfort. 



22 INCIDENTS or WESTERN TRAVEL, 



LET-TER II. 

LEAVING ST. LOUIS — HERMANN PACIFIC RAILROAD UP THE 

2>IISS0URI PERILS OF NAVIGATION BOONVILLE POLITE 

LANDLORD BOVINE MONSTERS THE PRAIRIES THE 

OSAGE WARSAW DEEPENING THE RIVER — LOST KAN- 
SAS TRAVELLER. 

My last left me at St. Louis, where, having 
secured an outfit, I put mj horses and buggy 
aboard the "Martha Jewett," bound for Lexington 
on the Missouri, and lay over one night, purposing 
to take the great Pacific Eailroad, and to intercept 
the boat at Hermann — the point to which the cars 
were running at the time of my ^usit. 

This little town has a German population 
devoted to the culture of the grape, and to wine- 
making. Here the passengers dined, and, of a 
great number, I believe I was about the only 
one who did not test by actual experiment the 
qualities of the staple product of the place. They 
seemed to relish the fiavor of the article, if I 
might judge from their comments, or the quantity 
consumed. 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 23 

This railroad, as the name implies, is a magnifi- 
cent project. The route along which it runs is 
picturesque, hut fall of difficulties. In fifty miles 
we passed through several tunnels, all short, hut 
all through solid rock. The road runs generally 
along the hank of the river, which on one side 
seems walled in hy an almost mountainous ridge. 
A section of the hase is dug down, or rather 
Masted off, and the material thus ohtained is used 
to make the hed of the road — leaving a perpen- 
dicular wall on one side, and the rushing waters of 
the turhid Missouri on the other. It is a splendid 
contrivance for fatal accidents. The hreaking of 
an axle — a run-ofi' — must dash the passenger, 
either against a granite wall, or into a watery 
grave. But no matter : it is one of the projected 
ways to the land of gold and the luxuries of the 
East. With such ohjects ahead, the Anglo- Ameri- 
can di'eads no peril, fears no cost. Progress is the 
word, "manifest destiny" a law — the law. 

But yonder comes the boat. "We go aboard, 
and find the captain a gentleman in manners and 
spirit, and the crowd of passengers orderly, sedate, 
and all disposed to contribute to the general happi- 
ness. After leaving St. Louis, all to me was new, 
and so I travelled with my eyes open. 

It is to the Missouri river that the Mississippi 



24 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

is indebted for its current and its turbid waters. 
Thougb very low on my trip, still it rushed like a 
torrent, and I witnessed several of tliose landslides, 
on a small scale, w^liicli are perpetually changing 
the channel of the river, and making the stream 
itself a sort of running mud-hole. The passage 
of steamboats at low water on this river is one of 
the marvels of navigation. In many places not 
only is the channel narrow, but from bank to bank 
it seems guarded by the most formidable snags, 
straight, crooked, forked, pointing outward, inw^ard, 
crosswise, forming often what in military phrase 
is called chevaux de frise. I very often thought 
our craft was at the end of her journeying, but I 
was mistaken. She would creep in among these 
"sawyers," and w^hen one, being struck, would 
lower his head a little, the bell would ring, and on 
would go the steam, and over and through we 
w^ould pass. I soon learned that the logs which 
keep their heads above water and lie parallel with 
the current are not dreaded much, but those which 
lie on the bottom across the river are the great 
difficulty. I found much amusement in listening 
to the man who sounded the depth, and I soon 
learned to prognosticate a thump upon the bottom. 
The man throws his lead, and cries with a sort 
of Irish accent and nasal tone, "Six fate — five 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 25 

fate — five and a half — four fate — tliree and a 
half." :N'ow look out—" Three feet !" There, now 
she strikes. The boat is fast on a sand-bar, or 
balanced on a log. ^Wlien she will get off is 
doubtful; perhaps in an hour — it may be a half 
day. Sometimes, while we were struggling to 
move along, within sight might be seen two or 
three other boats all fast — puffing and paddling, 
spars in the water, capstan turning, all hands 
busy, and, sad to tell, many tongues blaspheming. 
Backward or forward, no matter which way, so the 
boat moves. Sooner or later the task is finished, 
and on we go rejoicing, but fearing a like mishap. 
At Jefferson City, a man came aboard who 
keeps a wood-yard just above. "Wliile standing 
alone, he approached me, and as I made some 
slio'ht remark about the river as a navis^able 
stream, he broke forth into the most eloquent 
eulogium : " More boats plied its waters, fewer 
'accidents occurred on it, it was navigable longer 
in the year, than any river in the United States." 
Said I, "Is it better than the Hudson?" "Ah! 
stranger, I give that up. That is just one river 
alone by itself." Content with checkmating his 
self-conceit even for a moment, I let him go on. 
"Diana of the Ephesians" was "great," for by 
her he got his gain in the sale of wood. 



26 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

Leaving St. Louis on Thursday, we expected to 
reach Boonville on Saturday evening, hut the logs 
and the sand-hars delayed us till Sahhath after- 
noon. I must not omit to mention that when I 
called, on the j^assage, at the captain's office, to 
pay my fare, he — as they say on the "Western 
waters — " chalked my hat;" which heing interpreted 
means, that he charged nothing either for me or 
my son. 

On going ashore, I went up to the hotel and 
found it crowded, hut succeeded in ohtaining a 
room, as I promised to leave early in the morning. 
Mine host — hy the way, a namesake — was thus 
particular, because in the morning the State Fair 
opened, and a great rush of people was anticipated. 
When the supper-hell rang, I followed the throng 
into the eating -room, but was too late — every 
chair and plate was appropriated. jSTothing was 
left, as I thought, but to wait the next turn ; but 
as I was leaving the room, the polite proprietor, 
thinking, perhaps, that I was disconsolate, seized 
me by the arm — led me out of the house through 
the yard (not saying a word, but leaving me to 
conjecture what he meant) till he reached a 
temporary shelter, and then bade me look through 
a crack. I obeyed, and saw a long table burdened 
with empty dishes ; as I turned to look at him. 



with a triumphant air he said, "You see what 
preparation I have made for mj guests. Don't 
you think there will he room enough for all?" 
I assented, hut the prospect did not satisfy my 
appetite ; I still longed for my supper. My time 
came at last, and I did ample justice to a feast 
of fat thino-s. 

When I came out, the church-hells were rincrino- 
and I sallied out to find the Methodist church. 
After many inquiries I found it, and stopped at the 
door, intending, if I could identify the preacher, 
to reveal myself and preach for him. In this I 
failed, and so I sat down with the few who 
w^ere out, and heard a very fair sermon from the 
preacher in charge. 

Early in the morning we left, without guide or 
any particular directions, for Versailles — forty miles 
distant — on our way to the Indian Mission Con 
ference. For miles we met the country -people 
going in to the fair. Every kind of vehicle had 
been pressed into service, and, in the way of 
locomotives, the animal world was well repre- 
sented. Of course the horse was the most popular 
as a riding animal, hut several persons were 
mounted on ox-back. 

And here let me say, the ox in IN'orthern Missouri 
is as far superior in size to the Carolina and 



28 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

Georgia steers, as Job's warliorse to an Indian 
pony. They are an elephantine race.** Four, six, 
and eight pair, all of which I saw, constitnte a 
team, equal to any load a wagon can bear. It is 
common to hitch sixteen of these bovine monsters 
to a plough to turn over the prairie sod. The 
XDlough cuts thirty-six inches with every furrow. 
I saw this work going on, and it made me ashamed 
of Southern agriculture. 

During this day's ride, for the first time in my 
life, I saw a bona fide prairie. After passing over a 
very broken country, well wooded, and tolerably 
settled, we came suddenly on one of those wide- 
spread plains with which the "West abounds. I 
call them plains, because in them are hundreds of 
acres perfectly level ; they are destitute of timber, 
and there is very little to obstruct the vision ; but 
generally they are undulating. They remind one 
of the ocean ; and if, when the sea is rolling in 
heavy swells, its waters could be arrested in their 
flow and all made still, the type would be perfect. 
In these almost boundless wilds, water is scarce, 
but wherever a stream runs, there the timber 
grows, and, of course, near these two indispen- 
sable articles, all the settlements are found. The 
scarcity of water and the intense cold of this 
region are the great drawbacks upon this otherwise 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 29 

very desirable country. The laud is fertile— pro- 
ducing from fifteen to thirty bushels of wheat to 
the acre, and from fifty to one hundred bushels 
of corn. Oats of the finest quality are abundant, 
and I found that my horses, fed on clean oats, 
travelled with more spirit and seemed less fatigued 
with a long drive than when fed on corn. 

With a good road and fresh horses, we accom- 
plished the first day's travel and reached the inn 
at the little prairie town before sundown. It was 
the first day of October, and very cold, and we 
found the fireside a very pleasant retreat from the 
sharp winds which had fanned us all the day 
long. 

On the next day we pursued our journey, forty 
miles, to Warsaw, on the Osage river. The hotel 
was undergoing repairs, and we had very airy 
lodgings for a cold night. On inquiry, the inn- 
keeper told me that he paid sixty-six dollars a 
thousand for every foot of lumber he was usino-. 
He bought in St. Louis, shipped to Boonville, and 
then wagoned it eighty miles. Pretty expensive 
and troublesome building, that ! 

Warsaw aspires to the dignity of an inland 
port. This she expects to realize by narrowing 
the channel of the river just opposite. At tliis 
point the stream is wide and flat, with a gravelly 



30 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

bed. ^Tien we crossed by fording next morn- 
ing, we found tico men and mules with scrapers 
raking the gravel into a ridge on one side, hoping, 
I suppose, that the current would do the digging 
and the deepening. The faith of the people in 
the success of the project must be weak, as they 
employ such cheap machinery in the enterprise. 
To-dav on the Osa2:e, and the streams which run 

«, CD J 

into it, we have some very fine lands, but the 
settlements are few and far between. ^Wlien we 
reached the next noted stand, late in the after- 
noon, the proprietor informed us that he could 
not take us in, as his family were sick, and his lots 
crowded with mules on their way to the South. 
He said there was a house fixQ miles ahead where 
we could find lodgings. 

On we went, and found the house, and hailed its 
inmates : a lad of some sixteen summers came out, 
and told us very decidedly that we could not stay 
there. "Why, I was told you kept a public-house 
here." "We did," said he, "but we have never 
taken anybody in since that storm." The sun was 
setting, and a cloudy night at hand. " How far to 
the next house ?" "Five miles," was the answer. 

Once more we took up the line of march. 
Darkness came down upon us — the road was 
invisible — the horses nearlv out of sight — the 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTEKX TRAVEL. 31 

rain threatening to descend, and jet no sign of a 
human habitation. iSTow the idea struck me that 
possibly we had passed the place, and to move on 
or go back was a question of no little concern. 
In mid debate of this interesting topic, we found 
ourselves out of the road among the bushes. The 
point of our departure was uncertain, and on 
which side of us lay the right track was somewhat 
doubtful — no very pleasant condition in a thinly 
inhabited region. 'We put out for the prairie on 
our left, trusting that instinct and habit would 
incline the horses to take the road if we struck it 
at all. In this we judged rightly, and a mile or 
less brought us to the desired haven. The light 
beaming through the window upon the outer 
darkness, and the soft voice which cried "Come 
in," were very grateful, as they ended our anxie- 
ties, and promised rest to our weariness. 

At this place lived an old widow and her 
daughter. They were Methodists — the house was 
one of the preaching places for the circuit. So I 
let them know that I was a preacher, and they 
make me feel quite at home. Presently a foot- 
traveller arrived, and he too was admitted under 
the hospitable roof. After prayer we retired, and 
the pedestrian informed me he was returning 
from Kansas — of which he gave a sad account. 



32 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



He left, lie said, because they had so little preach- 
ing out there. But this man, who loved the gospel 
so well, left without paying his bill in the morning, 
0, human nature 1 




INCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 33 



LETTEE III. 

BAD WEATHER — SPRINGFIELD — A BEAUTIFUL VALLEY 

BENTONVILLE THE PIOUS WIDOW PLENTY OF APPLES 

CHEROKEE INDIANS- — TAHLEQUAH INDIAN COUNCIL 

FORT GIBSON FAT LANDLORD BEAUTIFUL SCENERY 

CHIMNEY MOUNTAIN INDIAN MISSION CONFERENCE. 

The next day we had the 'pleasure of driving 
tkrough prairie mud, with, ever and anon a 
descending sliower, and both together made tra- 
velling a task to our horses, and brought us once 
more into the night before we reached lodgings. 
Amid rain and cold we arrived at Springfield, 
which, like "Fame's proud temple," rests upon an 
eminence, up which the traveller toils with slow 
and laborious steps. 

The next morning it was sleeting, and, soon after 
we left, a genuine snow-storm fell upon us for 
three hours or more — to a Southern man, a strange 
sight for the fifth day of October. With bad road, 
rain, sleet, and snow, we took up early in the 
evening, and found comfortable entertainment at 

9* 



84 INCIDEJs^TS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

Mr. Smitli's. "Wlietlier it was ''John,'' or not, I 
did not inquire. 

The next day we passed over a road, the beauty 
of which would repay one for the trouble of 
going to see it. It winds along a valley, for the 
most part, sometimes with lofty ridges on either 
side, covered with white flint rock — tall trees, 
without any undergrowth, towering up from base to 
summit, and presently a mountain lifts its majestic 
form before' you ; and all the while, without jolt 
or jar, even wearied horses will carry you over the 
gravelly road, six or seven miles the hour. It is 
Macadamized by IN^ature's cunning hand, smooth, 
elastic, and generally descending in the direction 
we were going. The very horses seemed low- 
spirited, when by and by we reached the hills and 
the rocks. The last few miles of this day's travel 
were rough enough to endear the morning's ride, 
and to make a stopping-place very desirable. ^Ye 
found it at the house of a gentleman whose face 
struck me as familiar, and, on asking after his 
''antecedents," I found that he used to bring 
horses to my native county in my early boyhood. 

The next day was the Sabbath, and we left to 
reach Bentonville, a little town in ^orth Arkansas, 
in time for preaching. But the wretched road 
defeated us. We were too late — the congregation 



IX C IDE XT S OF WESTERX TRAVEL. 35 

was dispersing as we came in sight, and nothing 
was left us but to hunt a home for the evening; 
and night. This we found by going beyond the 
village to an old widow-lady's, to whose hospitable 
roof we were recommended. We found her alone, 
old, crippled, but cheerful, a beautiful example of 
Christian trust and hope. Seldom have I had a 
more pleasant or profitable conversation than with 
this aged disciple. Religion was to her a compan- 
ion and a guardian, a solace, and an earnest of 
heaven to come. It was beautiful to see her old 
eyes flash with inward joy, and to hear her tongue, 
eloquent with intelligence and piety, discourse of 
her trust in Providence, and her readiness to 
depart when the Master should call. 

After tea and evening prayer, as my son and 
myself were about to retire, she asked if I would 
object to sleeping in a room where there was a 
large pile of apples. I told her, "I had no objec- 
tion, but I did not think it safe for her to trust 
my travelling companion in such a place." She 
laughed, and told Lovick to take as many as he 
wanted. He was not slow to take her at her word. 
The supply relieved our thirst, in the absence of 
water, many a time in the next two or three days. 
This fruit is raised abundantly in the region 
through which we were passing, and pays well 



36 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

wlien earned to market. Large quantities are 
wagoned to Western Texas, and sold at ten cents 
per apple. A very remunerative price ! 

On Monday morning ^ve left our venerable 
hostess, and took a sort of trail for the Cherokee 
Nation. The way was very nari'ow, hut open and 
remarkably well located, considering the topo- 
graphy of the country. Abont noon we crossed 
the line and left the States behind us. My son 
had never seen an Indian, and was all curiosity. 
It was not long before we came suddenly npon a 
group of men and women, boys and girls, in the 
yard before a little cabin. They were taken by 
surprise, and, contrary to Indian habit, gave them- 
selves up to wonder at seeing a man on wheels 
in that T\dld region. One pair of eyes gazed on 
them from the buggy in eager observation. I 
reined up, slackened speed, that both parties might 
be satisfied, and wished for a daguerreotypist to 
take the picture. That night, we stayed with a 
half-breed, and took our first lesson in the fare of 
the Indian country. The mistress of the house, 
however, was a white woman, and rather neat and 
tidy in her person and domestic economy. I have 
seen better places, and I have seen worse. 

On the 8th of October we rode into Tahlequah, the 
capital of the Cherokee Nation. The Council was 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 37 

in session, and we tarried an lioiir or two to dine 
and see the chief men of the tribe. The house at 
which we stopped was kept by an Indian and his 
wife^3oth full-bloods — and w^e found every thing 
clean and nice. The man was absent, but the lady 
entertained us well, both with her cooking and her 
conversation. John Ross, the chief, we failed to 
see, as he had gone out to his residence, four miles 
distant. During the year he had joined the Me- 
thodists, and promises to exert a most wl lolesome 
moral influence upon his people. 

The Indian Mission Conference was to meet in 
the morning at nine o'clock, and I was still near 
seventy miles short of it. We left reluctantly, but 
duty urged us on. 

That night we reached Fort Gibson, and stayed 
with a man w^ho is worthy of some description. 
He w^as an old soldier, holding the post of ord- 
nance-sergeant, but has unquestionably outlived 
the days of active service. Like Falstaff, he is of 
goodly dimensions, exceeding any man in the girth 
I ever saw. Though the weather was cold, he was 
in his shirt- sleeves, and was puffing as one op- 
pressed with heat. When we drove up, he very 
bluffly declined to receive us, declaring that he did 
not keep a public-house. "I was directed to your 
house, sir, with the assurance that you did take in 



38 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

travellers." "^"ell, I do, sometimes, but my vife 
is sick, and I am not fixed for you." '' Wliere can 
I stay to -night?" He commenced giving me 
directions to another house ; when in the midst, 
he paused, and, with an expletive I will not repeat, 
be said, " It is too bad to send a gentleman to such 
a place ; get down, I will do the best I can for 
you." Down we got, and having provided for our 
horses — being waited on by a Creek Indian who 
could not speak a word of English — we entered 
the house, and found a retired soldier's fare not 
bad to take at the end of a long day's journey. 

In the morning, the old sergeant asked me if I 
was not a "professor of the gospel." Paying the 
heaviest bill on the whole route, we left in haste to 
reach the Asbury Manual Labor School, the seat 
of the Conference. 

Within a mile of the Fort we crossed the Neo- 
sho and Arkansas rivers, fording both with ease. 
Ascending the bank of the last and crossing the 
Bwamp, we entered upon the prairie once again. 
The country from Tahlequah, in the Cherokee, to 
Korth Fork, in the Creek Xation, is the most pic- 
turesque I ever saw. The views are sometimes 
enchanting. Valleys, plains, and hills — the last 
often naked, diversified in form, sometimes crowned 
mth timber — varieo^ate the scenerv and furnish the 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 39 

eye with endless gratification. Occasionally the 
slate rock crops out on the side of some gentle ac- 
clivity, and forms a wall so regular as to suggest 
the idea that art has been lending its aid to en- 
close a lawn or garden ; and the trees above grow 
with such regularity as to complete the illusion, 
and leave you under the expectation of seeing a 
white cottage gleaming through the foliage. But 
no — Xature alone is here. From some primeval 
period — how far back in the roll of centuries who 
can tell ? — these scenes have blossomed in vernal 
and in summer suns and rains — faded in autumn — 
perished in winter — but to revive in beauty more 
luxuriant, with only some wandering eye to admire 
them. Our Maker must delight in the beautiful, 
or there would not have been such a seeming 
waste of tints and hues and all the forms of wild 
natural scenery. 

The hills of which I write sometimes aspire to 
the dignity of mountains. One, called Chimney 
Mountain, from its peculiar shape, seems to pre- 
side over the prairie and to watch every passer-by. 
For twenty miles or more it is seemingly about 
you ; you cannot escape it ; turn any way, there it 
is ; you feel haunted and then attracted ; and when 
at last some rival mound, aided by distance, hides 
it from your vision, you feel as if you had looked 



40 I2S-CIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

for the last time on some old familiar landmark, or 
had bidden a friend farewell. To see this country 
in the spring, when the grass is green and the 
earth looks new, if I had the time, (and the 
money,) I would cheerfully encounter the labor of 
this long, long travel. At such a time it must be 
" beautiful exceedingly. ' ' 

Early in the afternoon, after a hard drive of 
forty-five miles, we reached the place of Confer- 
ence, and received a hearty welcome from the 
white man and the Indian. 




INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 41 



LETTER IV. 

DROUGHT INDIAN MISSION CONFERENCE — INDIAN SCHOOLS 

DECREASE OF HEATHEN AND INCREASE OF CHRISTIAN- 
INDIANS — INDIANS LEARNING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 

On our arrival at the Asbnry Manual Labor 
School, after the salutations of friends and an in- 
troduction to strangers, our first request Tvas for 
^ater — the best of all beverages, and never more 
appreciated by us than at this time. Forty -five 
miles — 2-)rame miles, the longest in the world — we 
had travelled without the refreshment of water for 
man or beast, and a cool draught from a living 
well was a luxury beyond price. The whole re- 
gion over which we had passed during the day was 
suffering from a drought of eighteen months' dura- 
tion. The creeks and branches which, in an ordi- 
nary season, wind their serpentine way through 
these grassy plains, had long since ceased to run, 
and the Indian inhabitants and the passing travel- 
ler were alike dependent upon the stagnant pools, 
which the cattle had fouled with their feet. When 



42 INCIDEXTS OF WESTERX TRAVEL. 

offered to hit liorses, tliey blew their nostrils in 
disgust, and, thongli suffering from tliirst, declined 
tlie noxious mass — it could hardly be called a fluid. 
The people, however, take up a bucket of this 
mixture and leave it to settle. Wlien the dirt 
has been precipitated and the surface has been 
skimmed, the liquid is tolerable, ''in a dry and 
thirsty land, where no water is." 

It would be well if all who are skeptical about 
the possibility of evangelizing the Indians could 
attend a session of our Conference anions: them. 
Indeed, even those who never doubted the redeem- 
ing, elevating power of the gospel might have 
their faith confirmed and their ideas exalted by the 
services and sympathies of such an occasion. I 
confess to strange and commingled emotions, for 
days and nights, while the business of Conference 
was in progress. The place, the school, the Con- 
ference, each and all make an interesting para- 
graph in the current history of this aboriginal race. 
But a generation gone they were heathens : now 
they have flourishing academies, houses of reli- 
gious worship, the apparel and the manners of 
civilization, districts, stations, and circuits, the 
white man's book, his gospel, and his preacher. 

How strange is every thing around me ! I have 
just passed over a wild, vacant country, dreaiy but 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERX TRAVEL. 43 

for its beauty, ^vitli here and there, at long inter- 
vals, a hut or wigwam ; and now, here is a large 
three-story brick building — a schoolhouse — with 
superintendent, teachers, male and female, and an 
Annual Conference assembled within its walls I 
The bell rinses, and we all descend to the dinino;- 
hall : the boys sit at one table, a teacher at the 
head; the girls at another, the guests at a third. 
All in order; no rushing and jamming; and now 
every one at his place awaits in silence the invoca- 
tion of a blessing upon the bounteous board. Is 
this an Indian country? TVhio maketh these to 
differ from their kind and even from themselves ? 
Is this magic ? Yes, but not of Aladdin's Lamp. 
Christian benevolence has wrought the change. 
The gospel and schools, Christianity and educa- 
tion, have greatly reformed, improved, and ele- 
vated these tribes. You can see it in the first red 
man you meet on the highway. Yon cabin and 
enclosure evince the fact. That quiet audience, 
eager for the word of life, proclaims the change 
and the cause of it. Listen to that song — that 
prayer. The dialect is strange — an unknown 
tongue — you cannot understand it; but you feel 
that he who speaks " knows in whom he has be- 
lieved." From a thousand causes the tendency 
among all the roaming tribes is to extinction. 



44 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

They are perisliing. Every year leaves tlieir num- 
bers less. But tlie Cherokees, Creeks, and Choc- 
taws multiply — increase. Cliili Alclntosh. informed 
me that the Creeks had increased tico thousand in 
Jive years! This fact proves a change of hahits, 
physical and moral, and is a decided vindication of 
the plans of the government in their settlement, 
and of the Church in their instruction. 

The desire to learn the English language is 
almost universal among them. They seem to re- 
gard the knowledge of it as one of the chief agents 
of their elevation, and as a security against the 
relapse into their former ignorance and supersti- 
tion. This is a powerful motive with them in pa- 
tronizing the schools, and they avow the wish that 
their language may perish with the old and adult 
population. This is the true policy for them and 
for us. It is a sound, alheit it is an Indian's phi- 
losophy. And I will say, in passing, it is the right 
policy for the State and the Church in reference to 
all our foreign population, whether we seek to 
Americanize or Christianize them. Individual 
conversions there may be, but we shall never im- 
bue the mass with American ideas, sentiments, 
and the Protestant religion, until in their progress 
and improvement they reach a point at which we 
can communicate with them in a language be- 



INCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 45 

tween wliicli and their old ideas there is no asso- 
ciation. Without this the work of mental amalga- 
mation will never go on. The parent will pei-pe- 
tnate in his child all his transatlantic errors, politi- 
cal, religious, social, and ecclesiastical. For long^ 
long generations they will be as French, as Ger- 
man, as Swedish as the people thev left in their 
fatherland. 

The necessity to learn our language ought to he 
thrown upon them by refusing to translate our 
laws or to print a paper in their mother-tongue. 
In our Church movements, we should rely far more 
upon Protestant Christian schools for the rising 
generation, than upon the translation of the Bible 
and preaching to the adults. This subject is 
delicate in its relation, but it is worthy of discus- 
sion. Another time I may touch it ; at present to 
pursue it is to wander. In my next, I give some 
account of my Lidian acquaintances. 




46 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTER Y. 

JAMES m' HENRY ^INDIANS IN COUNCIL CHILI m'iNTOSH 

PREACHING TO THE INDIANS ALTAR -WORK CONVER- 
SIONS AMONG THEM. 

I MUST close my account of this interesting 
Indian Mission Conference. Nothing special oc- 
curred during tlie session save tlie admission into 
the travellins: connection of James McHenrv — 
better known in Georgia and Alabama as "Jim 
Henry" — the hero of the Creek war in 1836. The 
lion has become a lamb — the brave a preacher. 
The war-whoop is hushed : the midnight foray is 
with the past : the Bible and the Hymn Book fill 
the hands that once grasped the torch and toma- 
hawk. The bold, valiant savage, who spread 
consternation among the peaceful settlements on 
either side of the Chattahoochee, now travels a 
circuit, preaching peace on earth, good-will to men. 
The Lord make him an apostle to his people ! I 
understand that any allusion to his past history 
pains him sorely — no mean proof of the genuine- 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 47 

ness of liis repentance. A professor who delights 
in the narration of the evil deeds of other days 
dishonors himself. He oiisrht to be "ashamed." 
A good man always is. The memory of the past 
is the burden of the present and a shadow upon 
the future. He remembers, not to boast in idle 
story, but to repent. He begs God to forgive and 
bless, that he himself may never forget. 

One day a brother informed me that the Indian 
preachers wished to hold a "council" with me, 
and requested me to designate an hour for the 
interview. I did so, not knowing what they 
wished. They came to my room at the appointed 
time, and seated themselves in grave silence. I 
waited in vain for them to open their minds. That 
is not Indian etiquette on such occasions. They 
were waiting for me, and so I inquired about 
what matter they wished to consult, and learned 
that they only desired to talk with me in their own 
way about the Church and the schools, and the 
wants of the nation. They were interested in the 
welfare of their people, and had formed very intel- 
ligent, notions of their wants, and of the best 
modes of supply. 

In the midst of our talk. Chili Mcintosh — well- 
known in Georgia, in the days of " Troup and the 
Treaty" — came in. The son of an old chief, him- 



48 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

self a chief, the Indians all rose, in respect to the man 
and his title. They call him General. I had seen 
him at my native town, (Greensborough,) in my 
early boyhood, when, in the costume of an Ameri- 
can Major- General, and accompanied by some 
fifteen or twenty of his warriors, he visited various 
places in Georgia. The boys and the ladies were 
all greatly impressed, during that tour, with his 
manly beauty. He was caressed, and dined, and 
toasted everywhere. He made a triumphal march 
throughout the countiy. In conversation, I found 
that he remembered every incident, private and 
XDublic, in his visit to Greensborough. Among the 
rest, I reminded him of a question proposed to 
him by my father, and told him how as a boy I 
was impressed by his answer. The question was : 
''Is there any word in the Creek language for 
blaspheming the name of God?" The answer 
was: "There is not." He remembered the con- 
versation, and reaffirmed his answer, aj)pealing 
to his countrymen for its correctness. They all 
agreed he was right, and with one voice declared, 
that ''If an Indian icanted to say had words, he must 
talk English^ 

Mcintosh has not the height or majesty of per- 
son with which my boyish fancy invested him in 
other days. Though not an old man, he is now 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 49 

very gray ; lias a mild, gentle face, more expressive 
of liumor tliaii of boldness, and looks as if lie 
would like a joke better than a figlit. In conver- 
sation he is entertaining, quick-witted, and ready 
at anv time for a little fun. "Wishins^ to bear bim 
talk, I asked bim various questions about bis peo- 
ple, tbe country, tbe soil, and tbe prospects of tlie 
Xation. He says it is a mucb better country tban 
tbe one tbey left, tbougb, for years, tbe people 
were dissatisfied. On tbeir removal, sickness pre- 
vailed, many died, and tbey decreased fearfully 
in numbers ; but trial and experience reconciled 
tbem. Tbey could not be induced to return. He 
says every man coming to tbat region must pass 
tbrougb a process of acclimation. Fever and ague 
are tbe doom of every settler. He said to me, "If 
you will stay tbree weeks, we will shake you in." 
As I did not tariy so long, I escaped tbe promised 
initiation. 

On Sabbatb morning I performed tbe task of 
preacbing tbrougb an interpreter. It is not so 
difficult as I imagined. A man bas time enougb 
to tbink. Give me a sentence to start witb, tbeu, 
liaving common liberty of tbougbt, I could make 
tbe rest in tbe intervals. An idea wbicb I could 
convey in a dozen words, tbe interpreter would 

take a minute or two to explain. My discourse, I 
3 



50 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTEEX TRAVEL. 

am confident, could be delivered in forty minutes ; 
but, pronounced and interpreted, it consumed two 
hours. The plan does not suit me. I keep too 
cool. Those who are accustomed to it enjoy it. 
They say they have the same expansion of thought, 
the same gushing feelings, as when preaching to 
the whites. A very diffuise speaker might achieve 
an important reformation in his style, by the 
exercise. Some of our long-winded parsons would 
break down in the legs, at least, if they did not 
quickly learn to diminish the number of sentences 
and curtail them in length. 

On Sabbath night, I tried to preach, by request, 
without an intei-preter, as most of the Indians 
would understand me, and many whites were anx- 
ious to hear. Brother Mitchell concluded with an 
exhortation, and invited mourners to the altar; 
several came forward, and the closing exercises 
were resigned to the Indian preachers. They 
sang, prayed, wept, clapped their hands, and 
seemed as much at home in the business as we 
do at a camp-meeting. The strange sounds, all 
barbarian to me, amused me ; but the hearty tones, 
the spirit, the earnestness of the people, melted 
me to tears. I felt that the religion of the Bible 
had obliterated the distinctions of color, race, and 
nation, and that a common salvation made us 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 51 

brethren in spirit, partakers of like precious faith, 
one in sympathy, hope, and prospect. 

In conversation with the brethren, both white 
and Indian, I was interested in a fact of which I 
bad not thought before, but which on digestion I 
regard both natural and philosophicaL It is, to 
speak in Methodist phrase, the way these simple, 
untaught people get religion. With them there is 
no long agony of repentance, no such struggles as 
our civilized, refined sinners pass through ; but 
the moment the proposition that Christianity is 
true is apprehended and embraced, they submit. 
The argument is short, overwhelming, conclusive. 
The Christian religion is from God : I ought to have 
it — I must have it — I will have it. Superstition, 
sin, pride, self-will are swept away: they confess, 
pray, believe, rejoice ; and their after-life attests 
the reality of their moral renewal. How like to 
the case of the Eunuch, of Lydia, and of others is 
this ! With them the truth is new — startling. It 
is a revelation, before the light of which false 
notions vanish. With us, the truth is familiar: 
we know it; but we hold it in unrighteousness. 
Our convictions are diluted with vain reasonings, 
and neutralized by long resistance. To them, 
the claims of God and the necessities of their 
nature are developed in the light of a sudden, 



^711 



52 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

awful demonstration, and tliey capitulate. The 
simplicity and tenderness of the offered terms of 
reconciliation subdue their fears, and they yield in 
transport to the attractions of loye Diyine. But 
our history is one of hesitation, debate, contest ; 
and when we conclude to try, our purposes falter ; 
indecision relaxes our energies, doubts embarrass 
faith, and conversion comes at the end of a long, 
hard struggle. Simple faith saves the poor Indian 
instantly, but we are too smart to believe so easily, 
and must ask questions, and have a long strife of 
words and explanations before we can venture to 
try the prescription. 




INCIDENTS or WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTER VI. 

METHODIST PREACHERS MORE NEEDED GATHERING A 

CONGREGATION QUICKSANDS THE FIDDLER MAN WITH 

NO APPETITE INDIAN CABIN SUPPER COFFEE LODG- 
ING WHEN AN INDIAN CAN SPEAK ENGLISH. 

Intercourse wdtli my brethren in the ministry is 
always pleasant, and it helps to make my office 
tolerable that it brings me into contact and ac- 
quaintance -with SO many, whom ehe I should 
never have seen. A genuine Methodist preacher 
I love with all my heart. He is a man among 
men. There are in him elements of moral gran- 
deur, which exalt and ought to canonize him in 
public estimation. Who loves the country or does 
more for it than he ? TVlio is more dead to the world 
and self? SeJf-<Jenying, self-sacrificing, fearless of 
winter's cold and summer's sun — carrying the 
gospel to the poor — undiscouraged by " the proud 
man's contumely" and the world's neglect — he is 
always a hero, and sometimes a martyr. These arc 



54 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

tlie men who have been the sturdy pioneers of pro- 
gress and order, civilization and Christianity, over 
all our "Western wilds. The politicians and public 
men of Texas concede that but for the presence 
and influence of early Methodist preachers there, 
they would not have been able to maintain civil 
government over the heterogeneous population of 
the republic. God bless the memory and the ex- 
ample of these hardy veterans of the cross ! If w^e 
could carry some of our tender-footed, soft-handed, 
faint-hearted, delicate parsons out West, and keep 
them from breaking down or running away, long 
enough to make a fair experiment, they might 
become men in the run of time. 

All the Conferences that I attended need more 
men, and o right to have them. Georgia and Ten- 
nessee — the two Conferences, I believe, most over- 
run with men and applications for admission — 
ought to supply them. But none need go unless 
they are ready for hard work, hard rides on horse- 
back, hard beds, and hard fare. Of these things 
there is no lack. Yet there is nothins; to scare a 
MAN, still less to deter a Methodist preacher, who 
o:ight to be the highest style of a man. In the In- 
dian Mission Conference we need men to preach 
and men to teach. Where are those, called of 
God to j^reach, who could not get into the Georgia 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 55 

Conference because there vnxs no place to work? 
There is room, brethren, in the Prairies — there are 
souls to be saved, service to be rendered. Can you 
not "stretch your line" into the "regions beyond" 
the comforts and conveniences of this old country? 
Will you go ? You will find noble co-workers — 
Cumming and Harrell, McAlister and Mitchell, 
Eobinson and Euble, Duncan and Couch, and 
others. They ^^^.ll give you a brother's w^elcome, 
and the Indian's pot of '^ sofkee" will be both 
bread and drink. Get ready, and do something 
before you die. 

These red-men, as has been their custom from 
the beginning, still live along the streams, in what 
they call towns. These straggling settlements are 
far apart, and here the circuit preachers make 
their appointments. - When the missionary rides 
up to an Indian habitation, no matter what time 
of day, the host blows a horn, and this is the signal 
that preaching will come on as soon as the people 
can come together. He never asks the preacher if 
he is sick or fatigued, willing or unwilling; the 
horn sounds and the people come — there must be 
service. The most material drawback on the com- 
fort of this work is that so much time is consumed 
in riding. The appointments are far apart, the 



56 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

trails lonely, and the only relief to the wayfarer is 
in the beauty of the scenery and the piety of his 
meditations. 

On Monda}^ morning, the loth of October, we 
left Xorth Fork with Brother ^IcAlister and Bro- 
ther Ewing, for the Choctaw Agency. The latter 
brother was expecting to be transferred from the 
Arkansas Conference, and to take w^ork among the 
Indians. Tahleqnah was left to be supplied by 
him. The brethren were on horseback, and the 
roads being very rough, they outwent us a little. 
By-and-by we saw them ahead on the bank of a 
river. Brother McAlister dismounted, punching 
about in the edge of the water up and down the 
stream with his umbrella. "What is the matter — 
what do you mean ?" said I. " 'We are looking for 
a place to cross." "What, you are not afraid to 
plunge into this little branch! Why, it is not 
knee-deep !" "Ah !" said Brother McAlister, " the 
quicksand — the quicksand: all these streams are 
dangerous. Be sure you do not let your horses 
stop to drink, or 3^ou may be swallowed up. Once 
sink a little, and you are gone." Thus admon- 
ished, we drove quickly over the ^vide but shallow 
stream. Our travelling companions entertained us 
with several stories about these quicksands — some 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 57 

serious, some ludicrous. 'We passed tliem all in 
safety ; but I "svill say I never saw sucli sand-bars 
and beds anywhere else. 

To-day we crossed a mountain, and sucli a de- 
scent on wheels I never made before. "When we 
reached the bottom I could hardly persuade myself 
that the feat had been accomplished mthout dam- 
age to the vehicle. This was one of the passages 
m life in which there were more ^''downs'' than 
"ups." Once more we strike out upon the gently- 
rolling prairie. Delightful contrast ! T^"e had 
not travelled far ere we spied in advance of us a 
caravan of wagons and ox-teams, trailing its slow 
length along ; and as we drew nigh, we heard, 
mingling with the shouts of the drivers, the crack- 
ing of whips, and the rumbling of wheels, other 
notes — so disguised, however, by the confusion of 
sounds, that we could not recognize them in the 
distance. When we reached the head of the train, 
lo ! perched upon the top of bales and boxes, and 
yet under cover, was a young man scraping away 
upon an old fiddle — a perfect picture of self-satis- 
faction, oblivious with delight. He did not seem 
to see us. '' The world forgetting, by the world 
forgot," he was beguiling his dull vocation of its 
weariness, and obviously enjoyed his success. As 
to the skill of the performance I am no judge ; but, 



68 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

to mj mimusical ear, tliere was a cliarm iu the 
tune, (I do not know what it was,) as its soft tones 
floated over the lone wild. It sounded like the sad 
wail of some solitaiy spirit mourning its exile from 
home and friends. 

About noon we halted on the bank of what had 
been a small stream — but now was no stream at 
all — to rest and lunch. While thus engaged, a 
stranger rode up on a gaunt, fiery mustang, dis- 
mounted, and made himself very familiar in the 
way of chat. We invited him to dine : he de- 
clined, saying he had the chills and was not hungry. 
We pressed him a little, and finally overcame his 
coyness. He drew out a formidable hunter's knife, 
and made sad havoc mth our bread and meat ; but 
he especially distinguished himself when he came 
to our dessert of cakes and pies. We had laid in 
enough for two days, (not counting our unexpected 
guest,) but our store '' grew small by degrees and 
beautifully less" with the first day's operation. 
The rapid disappearance of the peach pies distressed 
Lovick no little. He said, however, he should like 
to see that man perfomi when he had an appetite. 

Late in the evening, we began to cast about for 
a lodging-place. Brother McAlister knew the way 
and the chances, and thought a night's lodging in 
the woods through which we were passing not 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 59 

improbable. A little before dark we came to au 
Indian cabin, and by signs and gestures made 
known our wish to tarry for the night. By signs 
and gestures we were made to understand that we 
could stay. AVe were left, of course, to wait upon 
ourselves ; so we stripped our horses and led them 
to water; and when we returned, our host had 
brought to the lot a turn of corn and fodder, and 
as he let his own horses out, we put ours in and 
fed them to our hearts' content. Xow we marched 
to the house to see about our own prospects for 
food and rest. There was but one room, but this 
was neat and comfortable, save that there was 
about it an undefinable odor, any thing but plea- 
sant. It is common, I learned, to Indian habita- 
tions. The man, his wife and children, were well 
clad, and were attentive and polite according to 
their notions. Xot a word of English could we 
get from any of the household. They could speak 
it, for they understood us very well in much of our 
talk: that was very obvious. My good friend, 
McAlister, undertook to secure us a good supper 
by giving special directions, more particularly 
about the coffee — with me, when good, a favorite 
article. But, alas ! he succeeded better with every 
thing else than with this necessary beverage. 

By the way — pardon a little digression on this 



60 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

interesting tlieme — bad coftee is one of tlie afflic- 
tions of tlie land, and it is one of the miseries of 
travel. We find it everywhere — in taverns and pri- 
vate houses — among the rich and the poor. Often, 
when every thing else is clean and well prepared, 
the coffee is execrable stuff. Weak, or black, or 
unsettled, it is enough to make a well man sick. 
Why is this? It is not stinginess, for there is 
often enough of the raw material, if it had been 
boiled and cleared. Sometimes, it is true, a man 
has to drink a good deal of water to get a little 
coffee ; but, generally, the difficulty is that the fluid 
is muddy, the grounds all afloat ; and then " the 
cup cheers" not, but sadly offends sight, smell, and 
taste. The country needs a reform. It is more 
necessary to the welfare of the people than some 
other things that agitate the nation. In these days 
of Womens' Eights I will not invade their pro- 
vince by pretending to give a recipe. I will only 
say, there must be good grains, well j^^^-f^ched — not 
burnt — well boiled, and well settled ; and then, as 
the cookery-books say, cream (not milk) and sugar 
"according to taste." A lady of my acquaintance 
says it takes a tablespoonful of coffee to every cup ; 
a little more would not hurt to make the article 
decently good. I wish the people — Indians and 
all — would try her proportions. 



IXCIDEXT5 OF WESTERX TRAVZL. 61 

Slipper over, we proposed family - prayer. Our 
Choctaw host had a Bible, and thev all seemed 
to know what we were about. Father, mother, 
children, all came in, seated themselves very de- 
youtly, and, though none of them were religious, 
manifested no little interest in the exercises. I 
longed to giye them a word of exhortation, but mj 
ignorance of their language forbade. 

T.'h.cn bedtime came round, the family all re- 
tired to the kitchen, and left us to occupy the chief 
room — their common dwelling. The beds — two 
of them — were so strongly impregnated with tlLCii 
odor I declined describing, that I concluded to 
make a bed of my own. Brother McAlister said 
his nose was familiar with the perfume fi'om 
long habit; and Brother Ewing, intending to 
transfer, determined to begin his education that 
night, and so they took the beds. Loyick and I 
spread down the buffalo-skin, and, with cushions 
for pillows, and cloaks for coyer, and feet to the 
fire, slept to the break of day. Xor did I feel, 
thank Grod, that this was a hardship in the service 
of my Master. He ^'had not where to lay his 
head." 

When we were ready for a start in the morning, 
I determined to try once more to get a word of 
English from my Choctaw friend. I said to him, 



62 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL, 



"What do I pay you?" His black eye twinkled 
intelligently: '''Two dollar^'" said he. 0, the magic 
of money ! It "makes the mare go," and Indians 
talk — Anglo-Saxon. 




INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 63 



LETTER YII. 

ON THE ROAD — CHOCTAW AGENCY — INDIAN GATHERING 

TOBLEECHUBBEE SCHOOLS AT NEW HOPE AND FORT COF- 
FEE DUST VAN BUREN, ARKANSAS FORT SMITH 

ARKANSAS CONFERENCE MISSIONARY ANNIVERSARY- 
SABBATH SERVICES. 

Shaking hands witli our Choctaw friends, w^e 
resumed our journey. The soil of this region is 
not SO rich as that in the territory of the Creeks, 
but there are fertile spots which will repay the 
husbandman's toil. 

We halted at noon to rest our wearied steeds, 
and to consume the fraction of food left us by our 
guest of yesterday. That we might make it the 
more palatable, a fire was kindled ; and, for the 
nonce, we all became cooks, each for himself. 
Brother McAlister, who is full of dry, sly humor, 
spiced his meal by a facetious conversation with 
Lovick on the art of cooking, Indian fashions, and 
sundry little incidents of border life. 

Early in the afternoon we reached Scullyville, 



G4 IXCIDEXTS OF WES TEE X TRAVEL. 

the Choctaw Agency. Here is quite a village — 
stores and private dwellings. We stopped a while, 
and a glance at the interior of the trading-estab- 
lishments satisfied me that the merchants knew 
how to cater to the tastes of their customers. All 
the sraudiest colors known in the world of calico 
flash upon the eye, and are displayed in the most 
tempting form. 

A mile or two more brought us to Xew Hope 
Academy, where we proposed to rest a day or two 
to examine the school and to visit the school at 
Fort Coffee, five miles distant. The next day the 
Agent of the General Government had appointed 
to pay over the annuity to the Xation. The Indians 
were assembled in crowds. Such a company of 
men^ squaics, ^;<:<r/)oo.56'.5, ponies, I never saw before, 
and likely never shall see again. There was the 
Christian Indian dressed like the w^hite man ; 
there too was the half civilized, an odd combina- 
tion of the apparel of the two races, and here was 
the genuine man of the woods, strutting in the 
costume of his ancestors — hunting-shirt, bucksldn 
leggings, moccasins, and all. I saw one magnifi- 
cent-looking fellow: he had the step of a chief, 
the air of a king ; and he moved about as if he 
felt himself to be the embodiment of every thing 
which had been the glory of an Indian. Lovick's 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 65 

eyes opened wide upon the motley group, and lie 
w^as highly gratified to see a few Indians, such as 
he had read of, in the habiliments of a warrior — 
face painted, scalp-lock on the crown of the head, 
how and arrows swung upon the back. 

At noon we had preaching. As very many 
could speak English, by request I preached mthout 
an interpreter. During the sermon I observed a 
very old man who seemed deeply interested : he 
wept much. When the service had ended and I 
had come down from the little platform, he 
approached me, and, seizing my hand, began 
in Indian and broken English to tell me how 
happy he was. About all I could understand was, 
^'J/e glad; me glad heap — me glad heap;''' and 
this was said with streaming eyes, beaming face, 
and earnest gesture. The thought that God had 
made me an instrument of good to this old pilgrim 
was a cordial to my heart. I hope to meet Toblee- 
chubbee in heaven. As I was about mountino- mv 
horse, another, a young man, came to bid me 
"good-bye," and said something to me in his own 
language. I knew not what to say to him. Dick- 
son Lewis, who was standing near, said to me, 
"He says he is sorry he will never see you any 
more." Pointing to heaven — "Tell him," said I, 
"we shall meet up there." He burst into tears. 



66 IXC ID EXT S OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

wrung my hand, and went his way. May we 
renew onr acquaintance in a better world ! 

The school at l^ew Hope is for girls ; the one 
at Fort Coffee for hoys. I visited both, and was 
greatly interested in each estahlishment. This is 
not the place for an argument on the unity of the 
human race, hut I am sure we all descended from 
a common stock. Kittens do not more certainly 
play the same antics through all their generations, 
than do hoys and girls — no matter what their 
complexion — when gathered in numbers about a 
school-house. There are the same sorts of glee, 
fun, and mischief, and identical modes of mani- 
festation, at the table, in the yard, about the 
school-room. I went in • and heard the classes in 
spelling, reading, grammar, arithmetic, and geogra- 
phy; gave them a little speech, had jDrayer, and 
bade them farewell. These schools, well managed, 
will do wonders for this people in the progress of 
time. We must wait, and pray, and hope. 

"Now farewell to the Indians. They interested 
me as an American citizen and as a Christian 
minister. ^lay this unpretending record of my 
visit to them interest the Church in their welfare, 
stir up the preachers to go and work among 
them, and multiply the income of the Missionary 
treasury, that the Board of Managers may devise 



IXCIDE.XTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 67 

liberal things for tlieir enlightenment and salva- 
tion ! 

Once more upon the road. the dry weather ! 
The highway is a bed of powder, so fine that a 
touch lifts it in clouds. I thous^ht of a remark 
a distinguished Georgian once made to me in 
Augusta. It was a very dry season — the dust was 
terrible — everybody was complaining : he said to 
me, ''I wonder that when Moses was contending 
with Pharaoh, he did not try him with dust. K he 
had given him such a spell as this, I think he 
would have ' let them go !' " However this might 
have been, it is certain that I never spent such a 
day as the one from the Nation to Yan Buren, 
Arkansas. The next day the blessed rain came 
down, and the animal world breathed freety once 
more. 

I came to this place to fill an appointment on 
Sabbath — preaching morning and night — and 
on Monday evening delivered an address for the 
benefit of the Crawford Institute, an institution of 
the Arkansas Conference. Yan Buren is a flour- 
ishing little town on the bank of the Ai'kansas 
river. It is distant five miles from Fort Smith, 
and, since that has been abandoned as a military 
post, has materially interfered with its business 
and prosperity. We crossed and recrossed the 



68 INCIDENTS OF WESTEKN TRAVEL. 

Arkansas river in flats and by fording, travelled 
along its banks, and I am satisfied that it will 
never be navigable any more to any great distance, 
except in a fresbet. It is a great misfortnne to tbe 
State ; for without a marvellous change, it will be 
Ions: vears before there is anv srreat line of rail- 
roads in that region. 

On Tuesday, the 23d of October, we reached 
Fort Smith, and found lodgings at Mr. Griffith's. 
To him and his kind wife and mother-in-law I am 
indebted for as much of comfort as I ever found 
anywhere away from my own loved home. May 
God reward their kindness a hundred-fold ! 

In the morning of "Wednesday I opened Confer- 
ence in the usual way. I knew but one or two of 
the brethren, and of course formed to-day several 
new acquaintances. This Conference occupies a 
considerable territory, but is very feeble in the 
number of its workmen. They need help. If the 
"Iron "Wheel" had half the power imputed to it, 
it ought to roll a score of men right off to Arkan- 
sas. And if the ministry, travelling and local, 
were awake to their solemn responsibilities, they 
would offer to go. On this topic, before I finish, 
I will give a separate and urgent letter. 

"We had a brief, smooth, pleasant session : could 
have wound up on Saturday night, but did not, 



IXCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 69 

lest somebody might be tempted to break tlie 
Sabbath by starting for home. On Friday night we 
held our Missionary Anniversary. The preachers 
had done but little for this great interest, for the 
Tract cause, or the superannuated, widows and 
orphans, and of course got but little themselves. 
Drought — hard times — scarcity of money — these 
were the apologies. But I protest against the 
policy common in all the Conferences of turning 
out these great enterprises to starve by sheer 
neglect, because everybody is not growing rich 
as fast as he desires. Money can always be got 
for a good cause by an honest, earnest effort. Our 
preachers must learn to try ; and if there must be 
a failure, let the responsibility rest on the people, 
where it properly belongs. But I am digressing. 
On this night we did far better than anybody 
except myself thought to be possible under the 
pressure of the times. One old brother went out, 
as he told me next day, expecting to give, as 
usual, fifty cents ; "but," said he, ''you made me 
feel so mean about it, that I actually borrowed 
twenty dollars before the meeting was over, to 
bring myself somewhere near my duty." He gave 
twenty-five dollars before the meeting was ended. 
He said he felt better, and meant to do better. 
The services of the Sabbath were delightful. 



70 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL 



At night we had many mourners, and several con- 
versions and some additions to the Chnrch. Xext 
morning we met at snnrise to wind np, read out 
the appointments, and dispersed every man to his 
work, save one or two who remained to continue 
the work so auspiciously begun on the Sabbath. 




INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 71 



LETTER YIII. 

TO EL DORADO DIFFICrLTIES AHEAD — A GEORGIA FAM- 
ILY A LATE SERVICE HARD TRAVEL MOUNT IDA 

A XARROAV ESCAPE — CADDO GAP. 

Our journey now lies between Yan Buren and 
El Dorado, Arkansas. Breakfast over, we pre- 
pared for the long travel. About ten o'clock P. M. 1 
we bade our kind friends adieu ; and with Brother 
Harris, a preacber of the Arkansas Conference, for 
a travelling companion, we left for El Dorado. 
The people who were familiar with the route 
assured me that I could not reach the next Confer- 
ence in time. I was told the way was lonely, 
rough, mountainous, almost impassable in many 
places. TNTith such reports, the idea of trouble 
three hundred miles long was not very refreshing. 
But I have learned two simple but important 
lessons in my life : first, no man knows what he 
can accomplish till he tries : second, things are 
rarely or never as bad as they are represented. 



72 IXCIDEXTS OF WE5TEEX TRAVEL. 

Accordi^igly, we made the trip and had a day to 
spare. The road was bad enough, but I have seen 
worse. But I must not anticipate. 

The first night we reached a house on the road- 
side, and found the family were emigrants fi'om 
Georgia. The man of the house was absent : the 
hidy was glad to see one who knew the acquaint- 
ances of her youth. She told me they had moved 
several times, but had never found any countiy 
equal to the one they had left. By some means the 
family found out I was a preacher. TThen supper 
was announced, we all took our seats around the 
table, and there we sat — silent. I did not know 
their habit, and did not like to volunteer to ask a 
blessing, and concluded that, if they wished it, they 
would ask me. By-and-by, a youth who seemed, 
in the absence of his father, to have the manage- 
ment of affairs, said to me, '^Make a beginning, sir." 
Here was a dilemma. "Wliat does he mean ? 
"Help yourself," or '- Say grace?" The only clue 
to solve the mystery, was the gravity of his face. 
So, making his looks interpret his words, I pro- 
ceeded to ask a blessing. Xext morning I found 
that I had understood him correctly. 

"We started early to-day, resolved to make a long 
travel. The best-concerted schemes, however, are 
vain. \s^e were passing through a circuit which 



INCIDE^'TS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 73 

Brother Harris had travelled a year or two before, 
and, contrary to my custom, he prevailed on me to 
stop for dinner, and thus we lost two hours which 
we were compelled to make up on the following 
day. About sundown we reached another of his 
stopping-places, and although eight miles from the 
stand we ought to have made, we concluded to 
tarry. By some curious telegraphic operation, the 
news spread through the country around, that the 
Bishop was about. By eight o'clock a considerable 
company had collected. I supposed they had 
come to see their old friend and preacher. Brother 
Harris. It was a soft, balmy night, and not feel- 
ing inclined for conversation, I withdrew, and was 
walking up and down a long piazza, seeking rest 
for my cramped limbs, and was just thinking o± 
proposing prayer and retirement, when a brother 
came to me and inquired if I would not give them 
a sermon. ^'AYliat! this time of the night! 
Why, it is near nine o'clock now!" ^'"Well I 
know," said he, "that it is an unseasonable hour, 
but we have but little preaching in this region — 
we have never heard a bishop, and the people have 
come on purpose ; and they will be greatly disap- 
pointed if you do not talk a little for them." 
"Very well, get them all together, and I will try." 
So, planks were brought in and fixed on chairs. 



74 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

and there, late at niglit, among tlie hills and 
woods, in that lone widow's honse, to a handful of 
people, I made an effort to tell them the way to 
the kingdom. 

In the morning Brother Harris had the mumj^s 
badly: it was raining a little and threatening a 
good deal, and it was thought imprudent for him 
to go on. My duties would not allow me to lie 
over, and, as he was among friends, we bade him 
farewell. This was the day among the mountains 
when, according to prediction, we were to break 
down, and get no farther ^vithout trouble upon 
trouble. And verily it was the loneliest, roughest 
road in some respects I ever saw. For twenty 
miles, I doubt if the wheels made one entire revo- 
lution on the ground. Rocks — rocks — rocks, of 
all sorts and sizes : mountain after mountain 
crossed our path, and sometimes the descent was 
so steep that I had to get down and swing on to 
the rack to keep the buggy from so running over 
the horses as to make them unmanageable. We 
were obliged to go thirty-five miles to find a house 
to lodge in, and were told it was a miserable place 
at that : by going eight miles on we would reach 
Mount Ida, and fare better. A little before sunset 
we arrived at the first stand, on the banks of the 
Wachita, and a slight inspection satisfied me that 



IXC IDE XT S OF WE ST Ell X TRAVEL. To 

no rest could be found there. So I determined 
to risk a night among the mountains, or reach 
3Iount Idea — as the people called it. Just after 
fording the river we met three men, travellers, and 
all, as the phrase is, in liquor. As we passed, one 
of them sang out, '-Jordan is a hard road to travel, 
a'n't it. Mister?" Knowing that they would stop 
at the house on the other side of the river, I re- 
joiced that I had gone on, and next morning had 
additional evidence, as will appear, that I acted 
wiselv in so doinof. A dark, cloudv ni2:ht settled 
do's\Ti upon us, full five miles from the desired 
haven, ^e began to think seriously of camping, 
but having nothing to feed with, mercy to our 
tired horses drove us on. At last a glimmering 
light appeared — it was moving: the rattling wheels 
arrested the attention of the torch-bearer, and on 
coming up we inquired for the town of Mount Ida, 
and received the welcome answer, " This is the 
place." With Judge Ball, the chief man of the 
town, we found comfortable entertainment. The 
country through which we had passed was high, 
rocky, and poor, the water clear as crystal, and 
yet chill and fever rages. It is an annual visitor 
— the people never escape. The population is 
thin, and live mostlv bv huntins:. The sale of 
peltry furnishes them 'v\'ith money enough to buy 



76 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

sugar, coffee, and salt, and, I guess I miglit add, 
liquor. Bear, deer, and wild turkey abound, 
and a hunter's life is the very highest style of 
liying. 

Before day in the morning, a yroman came at half- 
speed into the little yillage, and roused nearly all 
the dwellers therein with her sad account of wrong 
and outrao;e. The drunken trayellers we m.et the 
eyening before had continued their potations after 
stopping for the night, and a general fight be- 
tween them and the landlord and' his family en- 
sued. According to her own account, she fought 
like a tigress, but at last fled to saye her life. She 
said they fired at her twice as she ran from the 
house to the lot. Her story produced some excite- 
ment, yet but little sympathy was felt for her mis- 
fortunes. Her own reputation for meekness and 
long-suffering was not well established. Howeyer, 
with a warrant, an officer of justice, and a few 
of that class who are always attracted by such 
scenes, she was about returning to the scene of 
strife when we left, congratulating ourselyes that 
by coming on last night we escaped a household 
storm. 

To-day it was a great relief to us and our hard- 
pressed steeds to find a yast improyement in the 
road. The geologist and mineralogist would find 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 7T 

mucli to entertain them in this region. On reach- 
ing Caddo Gap, a place somewhat famons in this 
part of Ai'kansas as having the best mill and 
making the best flour in all that country, we 
paused to admire and to speculate. Apparently, a 
mountain ridge once crossed this most beautiful 
river, but in some convulsion of nature, or by the 
pressure of the accumulated waters, it has been rent 
asunder; and now, between the precipitous cliffs 
there rushes a crystal flood, the motive-power of 
the mills below. Fine fish abound, and may be 
seen in the bright waters at the de^Dth of fifteen or 
twenty feet. Finding a place of some reputation 
on the wayside, we took up early in the af- 
ternoon. The gentleman who kept the house 
(Major Hill) was an emigrant from Georgia, and 
is the only man I met in the West who rejoiced 
in his removal. He thought he would have 
done better to have moved several years earlier. 
His lands were fine, his- house a favorite resort of 
travellers, his family healthy, and all about him 
prosperous. Indeed, he said he had made money 
enough. How many of my readers can say that? 
I think it likely the 3Iajor was mistaken : he 
charo^ed half a dollar more than was common in 
that country ; but it is due to him and his house 



78 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



to sav that lie gave us in food and comfort the 
worth of our money. I commend his "stand" 
to the hungry and the weary who may pass that 
way. 




INCIDEXTS OF "WESTERN TRAVEL. 79 



LETTER IX. 

A LONELY ROAD DANGERS — LITTLE MISSOURI RIVER — A 

woman's EXPEDIENT EL DORADO — WACHITA CONFER- 

E^'CE "THE finances" TRACT AND MISSIONARY MEET- 
INGS THE COUNTRY. 

The next morning the rain was descending in 
torrents, and a very bad road was made a great 
deal worse, so tliat after hard toiling we made but 
slow progress. The day's journey, however, with 
all its discomforts, being ended, we found pleasant 
entertainment with a Mr. Peek, near Arkadelphia. 
This region presents many attractions to those 
disposed to settle in the West. The soil is not 
very rich, but is productive and easy to cultivate. 
An abundance of timber, good water and plenty 
of it, nearness to market, and fair health for a new 
country, make it desirable for emigrants. Those 
who move from the older States, prefer the richest 
lands, despite the swamp mud and fever. A bag 
of cotton to the acre is an offset to all objections. 
" Cotton is king," not only in the world of com- 



80 IXCIDENTS OF TYE STERN TRAVEL. 

merce, but it controls plantation economy, -Qjsiea 
file bounds of our habitations, and compensates 
by promise for a life of inconvenience, labor, and 
liardships. 

But we must pursue our journey. Tbis day's 
ride I count as the dreariest, loneliest of my life. 
An old, forsaken, unworked road, narroTv, crooked, 
abounding in roots, rocks, and gullies, running 
tbrougb a forest almost without an inhabitant — 
one wonders at last where he is, and whither he is 
going. But there is no one of whom to inquire, 
and echo herself is mute in these solitaiy wilds. 
We had been warned by our host of the previous 
night of a certain creek, (with a French name 
that I have forgotten,) its bottom mud, its bayous 
without a bottom, and its bridge without railing or 
plank, its rotten timbers and broken rails for floor- 
ing. Toward noon we reached it ; and verily, in 
a rainy time, it takes a bold man to work his 
passage through its difficulties. Before we entered 
the swamp, fortunately, we saw by the wheel-tracks 
that some one had gone before us, or we must 
have guessed our route. Presently we came to a 
lascoon which had been causewaved, but the los^s 
had been washed up, and were standing rather 
than Ipng, so that a passage in that direction was 
impossible. "We could see where our forerunner 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 81 

had gone in, but could not see where he went out. 
Going in was easy, but where to come out was a 
question of some importance. I dismounted and 
pressed through the undergrowth of cane till I 
found a log on which I could cross, and then, 
inspecting the banks, found a place where I 
thought an experiment might be made, perhaps. 
Lovick concluded he could drive over, and seemed 
rather anxioite to try ; and in he went, and doAvn 
went horses, buggy, and all. The passage was 
short: a plunge or two brought the horses to a 
little firmer footing ; and so we were once more, 
not on dry land exactly, but out of the water. That 
is an ugly place, try it who will. The bridge had 
been repaired, and was passable, but in a mile or 
two we had to cross the stream again, and this 
time to ford. We prepared for swimming, but 
escaped by a few inches. Our trunk was sub- 
merged, and ourselves pretty well moistened. 

According to report, the worst was yet to come. 
The Little Missouri river was to be passed, and its 
bottom was four miles wide. My only apprehen- 
sion was that night would overtake us, amid its 
mud and gloom. The mighty trees and the dense 
canebrake shut out the light of day long before 
the sun goes down. "Wild beasts abound in these 

jungles, and the idea that a panther may spring 
4.* 



82 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

U]3on YOU from some overhanging bough is not 
very composing. AVe saw nothing, however, but 
one bear, who seemed to be content with his 
swamp fare. Dark night overtook us before we 
found a lodge in this wilderness. 

Some three miles from the river, after one or 
two unsuccessful efforts to get in, we prevailed 
with a good lady to give us shelter from the rain. 
The family was large, and the house had but 
one room for us all. This is common in new 
countries, and I have seen the like in the old. 
Here we saw a scene — a show which amused 
Lovick no little. As it illustrates the old saying, 
^'Xecessity is the mother of invention," while 
it is no mean specimen of woman's wit, I will 
describe it. The household consisted of the elder 
lady, her daughter-in-law, and some seven or eight 
children of various ages from sixteen to tAvo. The 
husband of the first and the son-iii-laW had gone 
to market and were detained by the rain. At 
bedtime the ladies retired to the kitchen to give 
us an opj)ortunity of undressing without observa- 
tion. When they supposed we were asleep, they 
came in. Long before day the old lady arose, 
made a fire, and went out. I supposed the other 
would do likewise, but soon found from her breath- 
ing that she was fast asleep. I roused Lovick, and 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 83 

we availed ourselves of the moment to rise and 
dress. This done, we sat by the fire. When day 
had fully come, we heard a noise behind, and on 
turning to look, the other lady had risen, and was 
in the middle of the bed, a large quilt over her 
head, and under its concealment she was putting 
on her clothes ; and when she came out, her toilet 
was complete, save that her hair needed combing. 
Who but a woman would have thought of such 
a screen ? She was as perfectly hidden as to her 
person as if she had been within brick walls. 
Genuine modesty, native womanly delicacy, can 
always protect themselves ; and in this rude cabin, 
in these wild woods, the sentiment was as real 
in that woman's heart as in her sister's of more 
favored fortunes. I record the little incident, not 
by way of ridicule, but as an item of life in a new 
country ; a proof of female invention, and a sug- 
gestive exponent of the general truth, that there 
are more ways than one of doing a thing. 

Rather than remain and incommode this kind 
family, we concluded. Sabbath as it was, to go on 
to Camden, hoping to reach it by the hour of 
morning service. In this we failed by an hour. 
J^otice, however, was given, and I preached at 
night, and met with several old acquaintances. 
On the following day several of the preachers 



84 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

on the way to Conference passed along, and a 
crowd of us got together at night w^here I had an 
appointment to j)reach. Several of ns tarried with 
Brother Annis, himself a preacher, and membei 
of the Conference, and in the morning quite a 
cavalcade took up the line of march for El Dorado. 

On my arrival, the preachers were quite sur- 
prised to see me, as, knowing the route, they did 
not think it possible for me to get there in 
time. "I'll tiw" can do wonders, and of course 
an earnest, persevering effort can accompli&h what 
is at all practicable. Brother Kadcliffe, the Pre- 
siding Elder, met me on the Square — not the 
Masonic, but the town Square — and took me down 
to Col. Tatom's, at whose house I found a welcome 
and a home. 

The TTachita Conference opened on "VTednesday 
morning, 7th of Xovember. The preachers were 
very generally present. The reports of our Church 
interests within their bounds were for the most 
part encouraging, except in relation to what are 
now called "the finances." Poorly paid them 
selves, the preachers brought up very little mission- 
ary money, and hardly any Conference collections. 
The apology for this deficiency was low rivers and 
hard times. I have no doubt the brethren hon- 
estly believed that nothing could be got by asking. 



INCIDENTS OP WESTERN TRAVEL. 85 

and, with sad heart and yet with good consciences, 
they cast anchor and longed for better days. But 
they were mistaken. A good cause and an earnest 
pleader can always raise money. ISov do "the 
times" make much difference. When money is 
scarce, almost every man feels it is not worth while 
to be covetous and to hoard, and he will give some 
of the little he has. When every thing is flush 
and promising, men have larger ideas, new plans, 
and endless ways of investing, and they feel very 
reluctant to give at all. At any rate, it is the duty 
of the preachers everywhere to bring the noble 
entei-prises of the Church before the people — -all 
the people — and by special effort, argument, and 
appeal, invoke their aid. Let all everywhere do 
their duty, and we shall hear no more of an empty 
Missionary treasury; nor will the superannuated 
preachers, the widows and orphans, any longer get 
scorpions for fish, or stones for bread. 

These views were strikingly illustrated during 
the Conference. Dr. Hamilton, the Secretary of 
the Tract Society, came over, and proposed to 
hold a Tract meeting on Friday night. It was 
strongly opposed, on the ground that it would 
forestall and defeat the anniversary of the Mis- 
sionary Society on the next evening. I took sides 
with the Doctor and declined to preach, to give 



86 INC IDE XT S OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

him a chance. The meeting was appointed in the 
face of remonstrance and evil prediction. Dr. 
Hamilton opened w^ith such a speech as nohody 
hut himself makes — strong, religious, eloquent. 
The eftect w^as fine. I folloAved, and took up the 
collection — a little over four hundred dollars. " There 
now," said a good hrotherto me, "you have ruined 
every thing." "You did not think there w^as that 
much money in Union county, did you?" "Xo, I 
did not ; hut you have got it all, and to-morrow 
night we shall get nothing." "Hold still: do not 
croak. Let Hamilton and me speak, for you and 
the rest are afraid of the people, and Ave will double 
the amounV And we did. Xever did I see people 
give more freely and cheerfully; proving that they 
had both the heart and the means to do liberal 
things. Give the people light, appeal- to con- 
science, to their liberal feelings, and they will do 
well and grow^ better. 

The whole session was a pleasant one : a gra- 
cious influence attended our private meetings and 
public exercises. The people were unwearied in 
their kindness, and when the hour of adjournment 
came, separation w^as a tax upon the feelings of all. 
El Dorado is a beautiful village — society agreeable, 
the churches in peace, the surrounding country 
pleasant to the eye, and the soil amply repays 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 87 

cultivation. K I were a farmer, seeking a home in 
a new countrv, I should feel strono-lv drawn toward 
this section of Arkansas. In my judgment, this 
State is greatly underrated in the East. The peo- 
ple, I grant, need rousing up to a proper apprecia- 
tion of their advantages. They lack enterprise, 
public spirit. But there are the elements and 
resources of a great State. A dense and flour- 
ishing population might congregate within her 
borders, and when her lands are occupied, and her 
leading men in Church and State do their duty in 
enlightening and directing the peo^^le, her citizens 
need never to be ashamed, when they travel 
abroad, to tell where they come from. As com- 
pared ^ilth her sisters in the Confederacy, I pre- 
dict for Arkansas a glorious development and a 
brilliant future. The raw material abounds: let 
the spinners and weavers go to work and vindicate 
the prophecy. 




88 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL, 



LETTER X. 

CAMDEN A COLLEGE SPEECH — OFF TO TEXAS — SIGNS 

FOR SELECTING A LODGING A CLEAN HOUSE^FEATHER- 

BEDS HEROIC FEAT ''THE WILDERNESS'' MINDEN; 

LA. — CROSS-ROADS. 

On coming througli Camden, I had promised, if 
tlie Conference adjourned in time to allow it, to 
return and make a speech in behalf of a female 
college to be located at that place. Accordingly, 
after the closing services on Monday, I made haste 
to dine and to take backward steps for forty miles, 
to serve what I regard an important Church in- 
terest. 

Brother Bustin, an old Georgia man, had bound 
me by promise to stay at his house on Monday 
night, and to preach at the church near by. I was 
weary with business and labor, and needed a 
flight's repose for the refreshment of mind and 
body. But the people seemed anxious to hear the 
word, and, despite fatigue, I mounted a horse and 
rode to the church, and found, in the effort to 
preach, a special blessing. In a life of change and 



IISfCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 89 

toil, I have often proved that when I taxed myself, 
put myself to trouble to serve God and do o-ood, 
then I realized the deepest, most enduring consola- 
tions. That night's sei-vice profited me — whether 
others were helped I know not. The day will de- 
clare it. 

Many of the preachers accompanied me to Cam- 
den ; and after tea I found a large congregation 
assembled in the church to hear an argument for 
the college. As nothing had been done in this 
region for denominational education, and as very 
few believed that any thing could be done, I be- 
labored my theme, and pressed the people to in- 
stant action, for two hours or more. "We raised 
about seven thousand dollars, I believe ; and when 
I left next morning, some active friends were 
trying to increase the amount. They thought they 
could carry the subscription up to twelve thousand 
in the to\vn and country. I hope they may suc- 
ceed. Methodism cannot do her duty in this great 
country without seeking to promote and sanctify 
education. 

On Wednesday, the 14th of Xovember, we went 
home with Brother Moores, one of the presiding 
elders of the Conference, and the next day set out 
direct for Texas. Pine woods, bad road, and soli- 
tariness, made this a long, tedious day. We had 



90 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

been directed to stop at a certain house as the only 
place where lodging could be got within any rea- 
sonable distance. Late in the afternoon, in the 
midst of a terrible swamp, we met a traveller on 

horseback. ' ' How far is it, " said I, "to Mr. ' s ? " 

"About three miles." After we had passed, he 
turned in his saddle and called to me: "Do you 
think of staying there to-night?" "Yes, sir." 
"TVell, I stopped there once, and never wish to do 
it again. There is a house just this side, a new 
settlement. I know not who lives there, but I 
would advise you to get in there if you can : I 
know you cannot be worsted." "Thank you, sir, 
I'll try the new place." 

When we reached it, concluding to reconnoitre 
a little, I asked for a drink of water. A servant 
woman brought me some in a nice clean cocoa-nut. 
"Well," said I, "this is one good sign." 

Pardon a little digression. I have noticed 
many things in travelling, and some indications, 
small in themselves, decide me very often in 
choosing a resting-place. The house may be very 
humble ; but if the yard is clean, well swept, rose- 
bushes and shrubbery about, a vine over the door, 
a flower-pot on the window-sill, get down and walk 
in, if they will let you, and they generally will ; 
you may be sure that every thing will be neat and 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 91 

clean. But a white house on the roadside, with 
every thing around out of iix, avoid as you 
would the small -pox. Xo comfort there — dirt, 
dirt — on the floor, in the bed, the table-cloth, the 
butter, the biscuit — everywhere and every thing. 

"The goodman of the house" was out on his 
farm, and his wife was reluctant to take us in ; she 
said they were " not fixed : had just settled there." 
I told her I had heard of the place below, and did 
not like to go there. She laughed and said, 
" People do complain of the fare down there ; but I 
do not like to take anybody's money without giv- 
ing them the worth of it." I liked that senti- 
ment, and I put it alongside of that clean gourd, 
and renewed my applications. At last she said we 
might stay ; but, '^ You must wait on yourselves ; 
yonder is the horse-lot, and there is the corn and 
fodder; and when you get through, take your 
trunk into that cabin out there — that is the only 
chance." Very well, the work is done, and now 
for the cabin. As we stepped in, Lovick said, 
" Father, we have hit it exactly." The Shunammite 
did no better for the prophet. Clean floor, clean 
bed, w^hite towels, a bucket of water, shining tin 
pan, every thing in order ; not fine, but free from 
dirt, white and clean. " Cleanliness is next to 
godliness," said Mr. Wesley. I believe it. To 



92 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

live ill filth is a sin. A pure thought in some 
houses is almost an impossibility. There is some- 
thing wrong in the best people, who live slovenly. 
There is no defence of it, no excuse for it. Lazi- 
ness and dirt go together. I wish the Church 
were free from both. For the life of me, I cannot 
respect an habitually dirty man or a slatternly 
woman. The plain truth is, I do not try much. 
But at Brother Smith's — for the family were Me- 
thodists — mind and body both had rest. There 
was nothing to offend the senses or the taste. A 
plain, poor, humble man, he lived like a Christian 
gentleman. With nothing of what is called furni- 
ture — fifty dollars would have bought every chair, 
bed, bedstead, all the crockery, every thing about 
the house — I ask no better entertainment in the 
way of food or place to sleep, except that I prefer 
a mattress to a feather-bed, winter and sum- 
mer — all the time, for myself, my family, my 
friends, and my foes. The true origin of spinal 
diseases, nervous disorders, headaches, languor, 
and debility, in many cases — nay, in most — is 
feather-beds. I wish I had them all in one place, 
and were at liberty to do my will upon them ; I 
would make a bonfire, far more purifying than 
"Jayne's Liver Pills," and more restorative to 
feeble constitutions than all the empiric nostrums 



INCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 93 

puffed in a thousand papers. But hold ! your 
"gray goose-quill" has forgotten its errand and is 
wandering. Xot much out of the way, after all. 
I hope to see the day when the feathered goose will 
be allowed to keep her plumage, or shed it only in 
the natural way; and the unfeathered geese, who 
have so Ions; been robbing^ the first with violent 
hands, will consider the laws of nature, and grow 
too wise to sleep on doicny beds. 

My worthy host was quite delighted with a 
heroic feat of a son of his, about ten years old, a 
few days before our arrival. The little fellow had 
gone down on a neighboring creek with his shot- 
gun to hunt squirrels. "Wliile wandering alone in 
the woods, a huge bear, gaunt and hungry, at- 
tacked him : the brave boy, instead of running, 
stood still till the furious beast got within a few 
feet of him, and then with deliberate aim shot 
him. The bear fell ; but rose and retreated a little 
way ; the boy reloaded, and marched up and slew 
him with a second shot. The skin was preserved 
as a trophy of the son's courage and skill. 

The following day we passed through what is 
called "the Wilderness." The region deserves its 
name : wild, solitary, without a settler, the timid 
deer will hardly flee at your approach. It is the 
very place that Cowper longed for; but "the lodge'' 



94 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

is not there. That must be built by the recluse 
after his arrival. A little before nightfall we 
reached Mrs. Harper's, a widow and a Methodist. 
Bereaved of husband and several childen, she is 
afflicted indeed ; yet our Heavenly Father has 
mingled many alleviations in her cup of bitterness. 
She has good hope in the death of the departed, 
and her own faith is strong and full of consola- 
tion. 

The next day, (Saturday,) I had an appointment 
to preach at Minden, Louisiana. In the morning 
it was raining, and having a hilly, heavy road, I 
had hard work to reach the place in time ; but suc- 
ceeded in getting there before the people dispersed. 
The congregation was good, and the service plea- 
sant^ — I hope profitable. Here I saw several famil- 
iar faces, and shook hands with some old friends. 
How delightful these greetings are, far from home, 
among strangers ! 

But the day's work is not done. Eighteen miles 
more must be passed in order to reach Cross- 
Eoads by eleven o'clock to-morrow, where another 
appointment awaits me. Brother Lawrence, a 
local preacher, wishing to be ordained next day, 
has come to guide me to his house. Brother 
Eandle, the Presiding Elder of the district, kindly 
accompanies me. Before dark, we arrived, after a 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 95 

"Gilpin" drive, at Brother Lawrence's hospitable 
mansion. On the Sabbath I met a large and intel- 
ligent-looking andience, and preached to them on 
the great plan of recovering mercy. I went home 
with Brother Carraway, near the church, and spent 
the afternoon and night. 




96 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTER XI. 

LOUISIANA — RED RIVER BOTTOM — SHREVEPORT IMPROVE- 
MENTS — GREENWOOD THE CIRCUS IN TEXAS. 

XoRTH Louisiana is an interesting conntiy in 
many respects. Mucli of it along our route is 
broken — far more so tlian I expected; and even 
the more flat and level portions are sufficiently 
undulating for drainage. The citizens say it is 
healthy. A stranger, however, while looking at 
the marshy bottoms and the dull, sluggish streams, 
would come to a different conclusion. It is very . 
productive, especially in cotton. Corn too does 
well, but wheat is a very rare and uncertain crop. 

At the time of my visit, the low rivers had made 
biscuit scarce. Men of wealth were unable to 
procure flom\ Indeed, the want of navigation 
through all this region over which we have been 
passing since we left Missouri, had put the com- 
mon necessaries of life, especially salt, at fabulous 
prices. This indispensable article had been selling 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 97 

at from twelve to twenty-five dollars a bushel. 
High seasoning, that ! 

Descending a long hill, at the base of which 
there lies, rather than runs, a stream, (here called a 
bayou,) we struck Red River Bottom. As we 
trotted down the hill aforesaid, I observed that 
there was a ferry across the bayou. The flat was 
on our side, and without noticing whether it was 
fastened to the bank, I drove in. When the 
buggy wheels struck it, away it went. A diligent 
application of the whip made the horses jerk in 
the vehicle, and by the time we were all in, and 
the ferryman, by a violent leap, had overtaken us, 
we were fairly over the deep, dark, narrow stream. 
On driving out, I turned and asked, " How much 
do I pay?" 

"One dollar," was the answer. 

"TThat! a dollar for crossing this little bayou, 
and ferrying myself?" 

"Well, you ought not to have driven in till I 
told you : besides, there is a bridge three miles 
from here, and I take toll for that too." 

The bridge ahead was something like a reason 
for the enormous charge : so I left my dollar and 
moved on. 

I feel thankful that it was my good fortune to 
cross this famous bottom in a dry time. From the 



98 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

bayou to tlie river is eight miles. We did oui' best, 
and o-ot tlirou2:li in tliree hours and a half. The 
mud is a perfect cement — a sort of clay bitumen, 
glutinous, pitchy ; cleaving to man and beast and 
carriage, and making every step of your progress 
labor and travail. But O, how rich ! "Wliat plan- 
tations might be laid out here, if overflows could 
be prevented! The nearer the river, the higher 
the ground ; and here vast cotton-fields have been 
opened, and such cotton-stalks I never saw before. 
They grow up l&e saplings, branching from the 
ground, and laden with bolls. Wlien I thought of 
the little To7n Thumb weeds of Carolina and 
Georgia, I felt sorry for the men who spend their 
lives in making cotton on clay-banks and sand- 
hills. However, these Eed River planters do not 
make and save more than one crop in five. The 
casualties of the location make strongly against 
them ; but such is the amazing fertility of the soil, 
that they grow rich, I learn, very fast, despite their 
disadvantages. The passion for "the great staple" 
and its gains must be very strong in a man's heart 
to settle him down in these regions of mud and 
floods, of disease and death. Money is the great 
power in America, and the free-born citizens of 
the Great Republic are the people to make and 
save it. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 99 

Crossing the river, we drove into Shreveport, a 
town very favorably located for business. It had 
been my plan to spend the Sabbath here, but I was 
forestalled by the appointment at the Cross-Roads. 

After inquiring the way to Marshall, we drove 
through ; and as we had been told to follow the 
telegraphic wires, we found no difficulty in sticking 
to the right track. The posts and wires seemed 
like old acquaintances, after our long sojourn amid 
prairies and woods ; and they indicated, too, that 
we had returned to the highways of a progressive 
people. But this is a new country ; and although 
the citizens have availed themselves of the electric 
news-carrier, yonder comes a relic of the past — a 
primitive medium of transportation — a cotton- 
wagon drawn by oxen. For forty miles we were 
rarely out of sight of these clumsy vehicles and 
their slow-moving teams. But their days are num- 
bered : one more season of toil, and the patient ox 
will rarely travel beyond his owner's broad acres, 
and the cumbrous wagon will stand still in its 
shed. There upon the right is an embankment, 
and just ahead an excavation. These footprints of 
the engineer are the forerunners of an iron track, 
the iron horse — his speed and his burden. AVlien 
once the steam-whistle wakes the echoes of these 
woods and vales, and the country commands all 



100 IXCIDEXTS or TTESTERX TRAVEL. 

the facilities of a well-managed railroad, emigra- 
tion from the East will receive a new impetus, and 
capital and intelligence will work new wonders in 
the West. 

We reached Greenwood, a little village not far 
from the line of Texas, about sundown, and, driv- 
ing up to a fair-looking hotel, alighted. A young 
man, who seemed to have the management in his 
hands, approached me with an embarrassed air, 
and said that the Circus Company had filled his 
house, and unless I could consent to lodge in a 
room with some of the crowd, he could not take 
me in. ''Excuse me, if you please," said I: "I 
will go on, and risk entertainment upon the 
road." This Circus seemed to haunt me. I 
taxed my wearied horses with a longer travel than 
usual to get rid of their company ; but they 
reached Marshall almost as soon as I did ; and on 
going to Henderson a few days after, I found them 
again. I guess, however, they grew as tired of me 
as I did of them ; for at each place, except the first, 
I had an appointment coincident with their hour 
of performance ; and each time, according to 
report, the multitude rallied to the pulpit rather 
than to the play. But when there is nothing to 
divert public attention, what crowds of the giddy 
and thoughtless — ay, of old people too — nay, 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 101 

(Heaven pity us !) of Church members also, these 
mountebanks, with their calico horses, gather about 
them ! Alas for good taste, social refinement, 
intellectual resources, and moral principle, where 
these strolling vagabonds find patronage ! 

AYe found a resting-place some two miles from 
the village. Even here, however, some late in- 
comers from the sIioav disturbed our slumbers, and 
made us wish we had gone farther. Morning 
came at last, and we made ready to enter Texas. 
Our introduction to this Mecca of the emigrant was 
not signalized by any thing but our disappointment. 
The land was not so rich, the face of the country 
was more hilly than I had expected ; and, to my 
surprise, I saw in the fields, on either hand, galled 
spots, numerous gullies, old sedge-grass, and other 
signs of waste and decay. But this is not Texas 
yet. Even here, on the border, the soil is fine — a 
remarkable mixture of clay and sand, easy to cul- 
tivate, and, with good seasons, very productive. 

Early in the afternoon of Tuesday, JS'ovember 
20th, we reached Marshall, the seat of the East 
Texas Conference, and took lodgings, according 
to arrangements, with Brother Erazer. This is a 
good place to rest, and so I drop the pen for the 
present. 



102 IXCIDEXTS or WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTER XII. 

MARSHALL. TEXAS — EAST TEXAS COXFEREXCE — REVIVALS 

AT CONFERENCE OLD ACQUAINTANCES THE SABINE 

RIVER PROPERTIES OF THE WATER TRAVELLING AND 

PREACHING AX EFFORT AT SINGING. 

Marshall is an interesting toTrn. There is 
about it much of the beautiful and picturesque. 
The plateau on which it is situated is itself quite 
an elevation, while around are eminences crowned 
with tasteful private residences. The people are 
intelligent, social, and public-spirited, hospitable 
and generous on a noble scale. I was delighted 
wuth them, and felt while there, and still feel, an 
attraction toward them, almost strong enough to 
move me from the "old red hills of Georgia." 
Indeed, they proposed, if I would come, to make 
my fortune — a thing I never could do for myself. I 
record the proposition as a specimen of their kind- 
ness, and as one of those outgushings of affection 
and good-will which takes from the labor of the 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 103 

itinerant its burden, and makes exile from home a 
sacrifice to be borne withont complaint. I have 
never asked any favors, have declined some, never 
had many offered; but in the providence of God 
our Saviour's promise to those who '' leave all to 
follow him" has been virtually fulfilled to me ; and 
my observation is, that those who go forward, 
trusting his gracious word, are never confounded, 
neither left nor forsaken. 

The East Texas Conference is not a large body, 
but it is an effective one. The preachers are not 
afraid of work or sacrifices. They neither expect 
nor receive much, but seem to have made up their 
minds to labor in the Lord's vineyard, and leave 
their wages to be settled by the Master, when he 
shall say, " Call the laborers, and give them their 
hire." The business of the Conference was most 
harmoniously dispatched ; the Tract Cause and the 
Missionary interests most liberally supported ; the 
ministry of the word was quick and powerful, and 
a blessed revival lent its aid to cheer the preachers 
and bless the community. By the way, amid all 
the signs of the degeneracy and the causes of 
discouragement, about which we hear aiid read so 
much, is it not a hopeful symptom that revivals 
are far more frequent at Annual Conferences than 
formerly ? I never saw any thing of the sort, and 



104 INCIDENTS OF WESTEKN TRAVEL. 

rarely heard of one, till within the last two or 
three years. My judgment is, that oiir Conference 
sessions are more religious and spiritual than they 
were twenty years ago. And when it is reiuembered 
that business has been greatly augmented and 
diversified in the last few years, I can but regard 
the improved piety of these occasions as a cheering 
fact, and a conservative element in the history of 
the Church. 

During my stay in this place, I had the pleasure 
of meeting many Georgia acquaintances ; among 
the rest, my old friend, William Pinckney Hill. 
Associated most kindly in boyhood and early 
youth, we had not seen each other for twenty -three 
years. An emigrant to Texas, while yet it was an 
infant republic, he has lived amid its revolutions 
and changes ; and by talent, professional industry, 
honor, integrity, and high-toned moral deportment, 
he has won a proud position among his fellow- 
citizens, and made himself a name that any man 
m.ight covet. The renewal of our intercourse, 
under all its circumstances and results, constitutes 
an epoch in our history, and will live in the 
memory of each, while life endures. Perhaps in 
heaven we may discuss it as one of the providences 
by which our Heavenly Father works out his gra- 
cious purposes. May God bless him, his wife, 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 105 

his sons and daughters, and, as members of the 
Church on earth, prepare them for the worship of 
the Xew Jerusalem ! 

Harrison county, in which Marshall is located, 
seems to have been the favorite retreat of the 
Georgia emigrants. Here I met mv old Hancock 
neighbors, Abner Cook and John Harris. Their 
familiar faces made me feel at home. But, alas! 
this is a world of thorns as well as roses. Lio-hts 
and shadows strangely mingle. "While vet I 
grasped the friendly hand of the first, and rejoiced 
to see his face once more, he informed me that his 
\vife was dying of consumption. Poor man I well 
might he weep— and weep he did— for few men 
have been blessed with the companionship of such 
a woman. For consistent, deep, spiritual, intelli- 
gent piety, I have never known her superior. It 
was beautiful to sit by her couch— all pallid and 
wasted as she was — and mark her meekness and 
patience ; to listen to her words of hope and confi- 
dence, and hear her tell how grace had overcome 
the long, hard struggles of natural affection, and 
made her willing, if such were the will of God, to 
say farewell to her husband, and look for the last 
time on the faces of her little ones. In her cham- 
ber, where the sands of her precious life were 

running low, one's sympathy with the affecting 
5* 



106 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

family scene was bereaved of its sadness by the 
placid, well-assured bliss of the doomed sufferer. 
Sbe seemed so ripe for heaven, that when you 
thought of the sorrows of earth, you could not ask 
that she mio'ht tarrv longer here. In a few weeks 
after Conference, she breathed her last. The 
memory of her virtues consecrates her grave, and 
this brief tribute is the offering of one who knew 
her VN^ell, and hopes to meet her again, not amid 
sickness and tears, but where there are fulness of 
joy and pleasures for evermore. 

But I must leave this place, endeared to me by 
old friendships made new, by enlarged Christian 
acquaintances, by precious sanctuary services, by 
revival scenes and enjoyments, and by one more 
blessed exemplification of the power of our holy 
religion to comfort and to save. On Tuesday, the 
29th of Xovember, the Conference closed in the 
usual way, and the preachers all prepared to depart 
for new fields of toil, and I hope of triumph too. 
Having sold my travelling-apparatus, I was thrown 
on my friends for the mode of conveyance to 
the several appointments which had been made 
for me on the route to Galveston. My good 
old-new friend, Hill, harnessed a noble team to his 
rockaway, and took me to the first and second 
appointments, and sent me to the third. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 107 

Leaving Marshall on Wednesday, we travelled 
through a very hilly, piney-woods country to the 
Sabine river, and on its banks I saw some Texas 
lands. There is a tradition out there that if a man 
drinks Sabine water, something will stick to him 
to which he has no legal right. The ferryman 
told this story to a stranger once, as they were 
crossing the stream. He knelt down, took a 
hearty di^aught, and when they got over, he 
mounted his horse and rode off. The ferryman 
hailed him and said, ^'Have you not forgotten 
something, sir?" The man looked carefully about 
his person and his saddle, and said, '^^o, I believe 
not." " You have not paid your toll." " Xo ; nor 
do I intend to. I drank of the Sabine river;" 
and away he went, making the legend true for 
once. 

About sunset we halted at a brother's house 
near Bethesda, where I was to preach that night. 
The church was small, but the congregation large. 
The lights were few and dim. The people looked 
to me like dusky shadows, and I never feel well 
in preaching where I cannot see. I need light — 
terrestrial and celestial. On the morrow we went 
to Henderson. The court was in session, but 
adjourned for preaching at eleven o'clock. Here 
there was light from the sky, and from Him that 



108 IS-CI.DENTS OF WESTERJf TRAVEL. 

lilies above. I felt the Divine presence, and trust 
tliat good was done. We stayed with Sister Mc- 
Carthy, who, as soon as she saw me, seemed so 
overwhelmed with emotion that she could not speak 
when I was introduced to her. Recovering herself, 
she begged me to excuse her; saying I was so 
much like a son she had recently lost, that she 
could not control her feelino;s. What a little thino^ 
may revive our grief, making " the electric chain 
wherewith we are darkly bound," vibrate most 
painfully I 

Brother Gillespie was our travelling companion 
the next day, and on the route we picked up 
Brother Angell, who left us the day before to 
preach at Salem. The region through which we 
were passing very much resembles middle Georgia 
and upper Carolina in soil, and the growth upon 
it. We reached Rusk, the county-seat of Chero- 
kee, in a storm of wind, rain, and hail. The 
Methodists, contrary to their usual custom of 
building upon the outskirts, had located their 
church in the centre of the town. Despite the 
wind and weather, the house was lighted ; the 
people assembled, and I tried to preach. Here 
Brother Hobbes met us with horse and buggy to 
take us to another stage of our journey. A two 
days' meeting had been given out at Shiloh, about 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 109 

twenty miles distant^ and on Saturday morning 
(the next day) we set out — quite a troop — Gillespie, 
Angell, Hobbes, Shanks, and Lovick and I. We 
left the highway, and if I were to say, took the 
woods, it would be no great exaggeration. We 
reached the place a little behind time, but the 
people were waiting, and I preached once more, 
and made an appointment for Brother Gillespie at 
night. 'Next day, Sunday, I preached again, and 
for ^'ariety's sake must say a little about the sing- 
ing. After prayer, I gave out a short metre hymn. 
A brother who had been leading the music, raised 
a common-metre tune. Thinking to relieve him, I 
announced the metre again. He tried the second 
time, and failed. Seeing that he w^as embarrassed, 
I remarked, "We will omit singing," and com- 
menced giving out my text. Wlien I had stated 
book, chapter, and verse, another brother, appa- 
rently resolved upon a song, tried his voice upon a 
tune. He missed badly. Supposing that he had 
not heard me, I said a little louder, '' AYe will omit 
singing," and again was telling where my text 
might be found, when, to everybody's amusement, 
and nearly to the overthrow of my gravity, a third 
man lifted his voice, and the sound "sprangled" 
among notes generally, without specifying any. 
The privilege of laughing would have been a 



110 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL 



relief, but that would have been a rare preface to a^ 
sermon, and so, holding my muscles to the right 
place by a stern will, I proceeded with the text 
and the discourse. It was a good time. 




IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. Ill 



LETTER XIII. 

MOVING FORWARD FACE OF THE COUNTRY " MINE HOSt" 

ON TRAINING CHILDREN THE MAN WHO HAD SEEN 

A BISHOP EXHORTATION TO OUR EDITORS WORKING 

WITH THE BAPTISTS AT MOSCOW. 

Leaving the house of Brother Box, where we 
had heen lodging for two days, we set out for the 
next appointment. The ride on Monday took us 
through a wilderness. Habitations were few and 
far enough apart to allow what these "Western 
people all want — a range of cattle. Much of the 
land over which we travelled would, in the old 
States, be considered valuable. Here it is consid- 
ered very moderate. It is w^ell timbered — mostly 
pine, and partly oak — and I fancy fine for cotton. 
Water is scarce, and when found is not much of a 
luxury. We crossed the Xeches, a stream very 
narrow but very deep. If the flat-boat had been 
three feet longer, it would have been a bridge — 
new style, but very safe. Late in the evening we 
reached a small but rich prairie, and found in it 



112 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

several settlements. This was tlie last chance for 
entertainment for many a long mile, and so we 
put up. 

Our host was a Metlioclist, and seemed to be a 
man of substance ; but every thing about his 
premises was at loose ends. He carries out the 
free-and-easy style of a new country fully. Plis 
wants are few, and the mode of supply is not very 
material. His house was as near no house as it 
could be for a house at all. It was about half cov- 
ered; the doors had no shutters, and the ventila- 
•tion from all quarters was perfect. There were 
twelve children in the establishment. After sup- 
per a while it was amusing to look round upon the 
little fellows, as they lay in every direction before 
the fire — on chests, on the fioor, fast asleep. As 
the room in which we sat was to be the bedcham- 
ber of the four guests, at bedtime there was a 
wonderful picking up of the scattered tribe, and 
neither father nor mother seemed to know when 
they had found all, till they had been counted. 

Wlien the family had all retired to an outhouse, 
it became our turn to fix. The main thing — for 
the night was cold — was to close the door. Bro- 
ther Gillespie's ample Texas blanket served our 
purpose very well, and with sundry comments on 
the various styles of living, mixed with some 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 118 

grumblings about the discomforts around us, we 
glept — at least I did — till the break of day. In 
the morning, I felt it to be my duty to hint to my 
brother some improvements on his mode of living. 
It very soon appeared, however, that, in his own 
conceit, he understood the subject far better than 
I. At any rate, he had his notions, and they were 
fixed. He said that children ought not to be 
washed or have their clothes changed more than 
once a week : that the children who were combed, 
and washed, and dressed every day, were always 
pale and sickly, of no account. Leave them to 
paddle in the mud -holes with the geese and 
the pigs : dirt was wholesome, and so on. I 
thought it was time for me to back out ; and so I 
told him I would give him credit for being very 
consistent : he carried out his theory exactly, and 
I could not deny that his children looked very 
healthy. But I will say, that I still prefer a 
cleaner theory, and practice too. Occasionally in 
my life I have had some fond but careless mother 
to tell a dirty, unwashed little' fellow " to kiss 
Uncle Pierce;" but Uncle P. always declines such 
favors. A clean, well-governed child is the angel 
of the household. I love such, in cabins or pal- 
aces, no matter which. But some Christian peo- 
ple have not read Solomon on family discipline to 



114 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

niiicli profit. for a reformation as universal as 
tlie evil ! 

During the next clay we found the country more 
inhabited, and a decided improvement of the 
quality of the land. Some creek bottoms, high 
and dry, and, judging from the banks of the 
streams, about fifteen or twenty feet deep in soil, 
would move some people I wot of, if they could 
get it as it was ofifered to me, at two dollars per 
acre. Some man was clearing up about one hun- 
dred acres of it on the roadside. I should like to 
see the corn in July. 

We reached Sumter, a little straggling, piney- 
woods town, before night, and stopped to preach. 
We had to use the Campbellite Church, the only 
one in the place. I occupied the pulpit, as usual. 
The congregation was good and attentive, and I 
hox3e some good seed was sown. Service over, we 
dispersed ; all for a while going the same direc- 
tion. The night was very dark, and conversation 
free. One fellow, who seemed to have his pre- 
conceived notions wonderfully upset, spoke out as 
though he were soliloquizing: ""Well, that is a 
Bishop : I have often heerd of 'em, but never seed 
one before. Why, he is nothing but a man, 
after all ! He talks like other people ; in fact, 
he preaches like Mr. Z ." Brother Angell, 



IXCIDEXTS OP WESTEEX TRAVEL. 115 

who enjovs a joke, and likes to make the most 

of it, tokl me that Mr. Z was considered a 

tolerable exhorter, but about the poorest preacher 
in Texas. There, now: the charm of episcopacy 
in one man's heart is dissolved for ever! It is 
doubtful whether he expected to see a rhinoceros 
or an angel: certainly something mfra or super 
human. At any rate, my prestige as something 
extra is gone with that Sumter man: perhaps 
with more than one, though the old Campbellite 
preacher expressed his thanks for the sermon. To 
the orthodox, that might be considered a very 
equivocal compliment. "^^Tell, I cannot help it. I 
am telling things just as they occurred. 

As I wish to do good in these letters, I will 
pause in my storj^, to drop a hint to the editorial fra- 
ternity of the Advocate family. Brother Gillespie, 
on going from Galveston to Marshall, had a series 
of appointments, where he preached and presented 
the claims of the Texas Advocate. On his return 
with me, he concluded every service mth a brief 
speech, and opened his book for patronage. Going 
and coming, he obtained four hundred subscribers. 
This plan is wise ; the policy is good in more re- 
spects than one. I recommend it to all the brethren. 
Two or three months every year spent in visiting 
the people, would largely promote our publishing 



116 IXCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

interests. Let the editors conie into personal con- 
tact with tlie people ; represent the interest thej 
manage ; diffuse their ministry a little : show the 
Church that they can preach, and do preach, as 
well as they write ; and hy labor, sympathy, and 
service, identify themselves and their paper more 
directly with the masses, and the effect will be a 
quadrupled circulation, ^^either the preachers nor 
the people ever see these editorial knights of the 
quill, except when they come down to Conference 
to settle up. Show yourselves, brethren. Let 
Mac of Xashville, with his beaming face, and 
strong social impulses; Mac of Xew Orleans, with 
his pithy sayings and steady fervor of spirit ; Mac 
of St. Louis, with his deep, earnest, bustling en- 
ergy; Gillespie, with his calm, condensed, inex- 
haustible enthusiasm ; Lee, of Eichmond, with his 
quiet, courtly, reverential manner; Myers, of 
Charleston, with his indomitable will and ready 
plans ; one and all, now and then, leave the city 
dust for the country air; see the people, talk 
with them, pray in their families, preach at their 
meeting-houses, and subscribers will multiply- by 
the thousand. The labors of these brethren, scat- 
tered over the land, would tell upon every interest 
of our Zion. Our connectional bonds would 
strengthen ; the evil of withdrawing so many of 



INCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 117 

our strong men from the regular work would be 
greatly abated, and tbe Church would feel that in 
making a man an editor, we had not taken him 
out of the pulpit, or stationed him in one charge 
for ten or twenty years. Xay, on this plan, his 
veiy position would give the Church in his district 
of Conferences more general access to his talents 
and ser^dces. Circulate, brethren, circulate. Lo- 
cate the press, but itinerate the pulpit. Keep the 
pen moving, but do not let the tongue stagnate. 
Stir the types ; send out the weekly sheet full of 
the gospel truth and religious news ; but let the 
people see you personally, hear you, feel you, as minis- 
ters of the Lord Jesus. 

Brother Hobbes, who had very kindly brought 
us to Rusk, here surrendered his charge, and 
turned us over to Brother Kavanaugh, who volun- 
teered to take us the rest of the journey. I shall 
not soon forget the kindness of these beloved 
brethren. They gave more than a cup of cold 
water. The Lord reward them a hundred-fold ! 

Brother Gillespie left us at this point, and took 
the direct road to Galveston. I had four other 
appointments yet to meet, and we "parted asun- 
der," \^^thout a quarrel, however, and in good- 
humor. Brother Sanson had come over to take us 
by his house for dinner, on our way to Moscow. 



118 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTER X TRAVEL. 



He took us tliroiigli the woods -'for sliort," fed us 
high, and went with us to preaching at night at 
the little town with the hig name. Here I found 
several Baptist ministers conducting a revival. 
They gave way to me courteously. I preached 
to the people, and joined them in the altar work. 
It was a time of tears. May the harvest be ready 
for the sickle ! 



=SU«^ 




INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 119 



LETTEE XIY. 

APPROACHING GALVESTON ''GRAND CANE'^ CHURCH LIV- 
ING WITHOUT THE GOSPEL VAST PRAIRIES SAN JA- 
CINTO BATTLE-FIELD AT GALVESTON THE CONFERENCE 

THE STATE OF TEXAS. 

After preaching at Moscow, we spent the night 
with Mr. Mickens, who kindly entertained ns. In 
the morning we left for Livingston, the county-seat 
of Polk. The land between these villages is, much 
of it, fine. Some large plantations have been 
opened, and the cotton -stalks tell of the power 
about the roots. When we reached Livingston in 
the afternoon, we found some confusion about the 
appointment. The post-boy had reported that "the 
bishop" had gone direct to Galveston, and would 
not be there. "We managed to correct the mistake 
partially, and to collect a few in the Academy, and 
to those we delivered our message. 

For the next day we had no appointment, as the 
ride was long, and the country unsettled. Brother 



120 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

Sansdn joined us at Livingston, and journeyed witli 
us to Galveston. Pleasant companionship made 
the lonely forest-road less irksome than otherwise 
I should have found it. The next day I was to 
preach at "Grand Cane," on the wayside; and we 
had to pass two miles beyond, in order to find a 
lodging-place. The name of the church misled me 
in my calculations. I had supposed that Grand 
Cane was a very large house, in the midst of a 
dense population. On returning the next day, I 
was the first on the ground, and curiosity led me 
to a careful examination of the building and pre- 
mises. In the midst of an immense pine forest — a 
sort of second bottom of the Trinity river — stands 
the church, a little pine -pole cabin, sixteen feet 
long and fourteen feet wide ; the fioor made of 
poles split and edged a little ; the seats were punch- 
eons with logs in them ; the pulpit a rare structure 
of simplicity. Forty people gave me a crowded 
house. "While tarrying for the crovxl to assemble, 
I was much perplexed for a subject to suit me. 
Presently a company of men and women arrived, 
and after the exchange of neighborly salutations 
with those about the door, a lady remarked to one 
of her friends, "Well, this is the first time I have 
been to preaching for three years. In fact, I have 
not been before since I left Georgia." On hearing 



INCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 121 

this, I thought, there is a subject for you : the crim- 
inality of those who, having the means to do better, 
neglect the house and worship of God. Yerily, 
it was a plain discourse, and, I trust, a word in 
season. 

Through this beautiful region were a dozen 
families of Baptists and Methodists : intelligent, 
cultivated people, living without the means of 
grace just because they were in a new country. 
The appointment might easily have been taken 
into the adjoining circuit, and doubtless some Bap- 
tist preacher could have been found to visit them 
quarterly or monthly. To bring up children and 
manage negroes without the gospel — to be cut off 
from the privileges of the sanctuary — is a tremen- 
dous price to pay for rich land. The gentleman. 
Col. Farriar, with whom we stayed, begged me, if 
I found any clever man wishing to move to Texas, 
to send him to Grand Cane. He is the agent of some 
large landholders, and will sell land, worth twenty 
as to its productiveness, at three dollars an acre. 
The want of society and the distance to market 
are the drawbacks upon this fertile section. 

Liberty, a little prairie town on the banks of the 
Trinity — called, I believe, the cradle of the Texas 
Revolution — was our next destination. On Satur- 
day night we lodged within two miles of it ; and 
6 



122 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

on Sabbath morning we rode in, and, among ua, 
preached three times. The site of the old town is 
beautiful ; but neither good land nor its being at 
the head of navigation has given it vitality enough 
to groAV much. It is a superannuated infant. 

In the morning (Monday) we crossed the Trinity, 
and after a weary ride through the swamp on its 
western bank we entered a very rich prairie, house- 
less, fenceless, tenantless — not even a wandering 
deer appeared in sight. There it lies, waiting for 
some ''squatter sovereign" or some legal purchaser 
to upturn the sod, and cast into its black bosom 
the seed of the great staple of the South, or, it may 
chance, of corn or some other grain. Passing a 
skirt of timber, we looked out upon what seemed 
to be a boundless plain. Indeed, I learn that these 
prairies stretch to the Gulf of Mexico, some forty 
or fifty miles distant. They abound in wet, marshy 
places ; and, on every side, at distant points, may 
be seen islands of timber, as they are called. Here 
cattle range in immense herds and deer abound. 
Sometimes they cross your path with a bound; 
again they will run parallel with the road for half 
a mile or more ; and anon you may see them away 
in the blue distance, like figures painted upon the 
bending sky. These vast plains, though apparently 
level as you pass over them, yet furnish an ocular 



IXCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 123 

aemoiistration of the rotundity of the earth. It is 
exemplified in the animals running from jou till 
they hide themselves beyond the distant curve, and 
in the trees that come into observation, from their 
tops downwards, till all is visible. 

Early in the afternoon we reached Lynchburg, 
on the San Jacinto river, directly opposite the fam- 
ous field where Santa Anna's power was shivered 
by the battle's bolt, and General Houston became 
the hero of Texas. Several of us enscao^ed a boat 
to take us over the river, and then we walked half 
a mile to the battle-ground. Fortunately, a gentle- 
man accompanied us who was familiar with the lo- 
calities and the order of the fight ; and he entertained 
us with several interesting incidents of persons and 
companies conspicuous on the occasion. The seven 
Texans who were killed are buried on the field they 
helped to win. I stood by their graves and mused 
upon the revolution and its results. The sleep of 
the dead was not more quiet than the still prairie 
on which I gazed, and about which I wandered in 
quest of some relic of that momentous day. I 
found none. The sun was near his setting, and 
the long shadows of a few straggling trees stretched 
over the rolling plain, and the hush of balmy eve 
was all around me. It was difficult to imagine that 



124 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

armies had met here in the shock of mortal strife ; 
that the green tnrf had been torn by the iron hoof 
of charging squadrons, and nature's stiUness in 
this lone Avild had been broken by the jubilant 
shout of the victors, and the hated foeman's un- 
heeded cry for quarter; yet here modern history 
and yet living actors m the terrible slaughter lo- 
cate the battle of San Jacinto. 

AVe returned in the twilight to Lynchburg, and 
waited for a boat from Houston to carry us down 
to Galveston. IsTear midnight the boat came : we 
went aboard, met many of the preachers, talked 
awhile, lay down to sleep, and awoke at the wharf 
in Galveston. Brother Briggs, with whom I had 
been appointed to stay, met us with a carriage, 
(albeit the sun was not yet up,) and carried us to 
his hospitable mansion. It is not always that a 
wayfarer in this weary world finds such lodgings. 
I wish no better on my pilgrimage to the better 
land. My Christian host and brother and his ami- 
able wife, by their constant but unceremonious 
kindness, beguiled the latter days of a four months' 
absence from home of all their weariness ; and 
made me feel as if they were old acquaintances 
rather than the friends of yesterday. 

The Conference opened next morning, and pro- 



INCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 125 

gressed liarmoniously fi'om day to day till its close. 
The preachers are awake to the importance of the 
field they are called to cultivate. They have pro- 
jected several important educational schemes, and 
seem determined, by the appropriation of every 
right element of power, to maintain the vantage- 
ground which Methodism unquestionably occupies 
in Texas. 

Texas is a great country : great in its area, 
its fertility, its variety of soil and production, 
the intelligence and enterprise of the people, its 
rapidly increasing population, and its prospective 
development, l^otwithstanding the rush of emi- 
gration from the old States and the new, and from 
evers^ nation in Europe, the almost infinite variety 
of character thus brought together, the diversities 
of taste, opinion, educational bias, national preju- 
dices, and social habits, which are to be found in 
such a heterogeneous mass — I must say, I think 
Texas will compare favorably, in morals and public 
order, with any of the older States, ^"hat a thea- 
tre of action for the right sort of a preacher is here ! 
Society new, the social elements just taking shape, 
every thing just at that stage in the formative pro- 
cess when the right influences wisely directed might 
mould the State on the highest model of patrioti^^^i 



126 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

and public spirit, and the Church be made th6 con- 
servative, sanctifying leaven of the lump. If I 
were a young preacher, I should go right there, 
and direct my studies and labors to enlighten and 
fashion and control the moral sentiments of the 
people, and to bring the Church up to the highest 
standard of usefulness and the grandest enterprises 
of gospel zeal. Indeed, my convictions of what is 
practicable in the way of achievement there, and 
my desire to work new ground, strongly incline me 
to go anyhow. In these old States, every thing is 
stereotyped and indurated. The influence of the 
Church is rather conservative than aggressive, and 
the ministry, instead of rejoicing in the visible re- 
sults of their labors, are rather hoping than believ- 
ing that good is done. It requires a great deal of 
faith and patience to work with spirit under these 
circumstances. Would that we all had more of 
these needed graces ; then more would be accom- 
plished, even in these old fallow fields. To aban- 
don them to briers and thorns would be a sin. But 
there are men enough tied down by their families 
and associations, local and restricted in their com- 
missions ; dependent from habit upon the facilities 
and luxuries of an old country ; and who, from 
lack of "i'i??i," would perhaps work more efiiciently 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 127 

here than tliere. Those delicate brethren, who are 
rapidly breaking down on four weeks' circuits, with 
four appointments, and those whose household 
affections are so strong that they become restless 
and unhappy when out of sight of the smoke of the 
home chimney, had better stay amid the appliances 
of an old civilization. True, if they were men, they 
might do more good elsewhere ; but, frail and re- 
lined as they are in their organization, exposure, 
absence from home, and toil would soon make an 
end of them. "When they have been from wife and 
children a few hours, and are fainting in spirit to 
get back, the iron horse is a much safer reliance 
for a quick return than a mustang pony. But to 
the young, the hearty, the self-denying — men who 
feel that the love of Christ demands their all, and 
who never mean to pule about their sacrifices — I 
say. Go, occupy this wide field of promise — the 
harvest is great, and the laborers are few. The 
authorities of the Church must look to this point 
for its own sake, and because of '' the regions be- 
yond." Let the Bible and the missionary evangel- 
ize before the government annexes. 

During the entire session, a most gracious influ- 
ence attended the ministry of the word; the people 
were liberal to the mission cause ; nor was the Tract 



128 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

Society forgotten. All our Churcli movements in 
that region I trust received a new impulse, and the 
brethren resolved upon a higher order of effort in 
every department during the present year. 

I was delighted with Galveston — the place, the 
people, and the oysters. 




INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 129 



LETTEE XV. 

GALVESTON HOMEWARD BOUND NEW ORLEANS LAKE 

PONCHARTRAIN — IN A FOG MOBILE UP THE RIVER 

DRINKING, SMOKING, AND GAMING MONTGOMERY RAIL- 
ROADS. 

Galvestox, the " city of cottages," is a charmiug 
place. Open to the winds on every side, with 
Avide streets and sandy soil, and a soft and balmy 
climate, it is eligibly located for a great and flour- 
ishing mart. Orange and lemon trees are found in 
almost every garden. They grow luxuriantly, and 
were laden with fruit when I was there in Decem- 
ber last. The oleander is the common ornamental 
shrub in the towm. It flourishes even along the 
sidewalks. The plantain, too, with its clustering 
fruit, is successfully cultivated. Wliat the temper- 
ature may be in summer, I know not ; but a visitor 
in winter would conclude that the good people had 
the productions of the tropics, without the accom- 

panving fervor of a tropical climate. It is weli- 
6* 



130 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

nigli impossible to conceive of a finer beach than 
the one aronnd Galveston. An evening ride on 
these surf-beaten sands is a delightful recreation. 
The beautiful and the sublime, nature and art, the 
works of God and the inventions of men, combine 
in panoramic order. The island, with its human 
habitations ; the Gulf, with its ever-heaving waters ; 
the steamship, bannered with smoke, proudly defy- 
ing wind and wave; the sea-birds, with tireless 
wing fanning the air, or descending to ride upon 
the billows ; the merry voices of the gay and the 
glad, as they gather shells upon the shore, ming- 
ling with the everlasting roar of the tide in its 
ebb and its flow, constitute a scene where one may 
well pause to think and feel, to admire and adore. 

Galveston cannot be a sickly place, unless it be 
by the criminal carelessness of the city authorities, 
or the bad habits of the people. Yellow-fever cer- 
tainly cannot originate there, and if it prevail at 
all, it must be by importation. "When Texas shall 
count her citizens by the million, and communica- 
tion with the interior by railroads shall be opened, 
this city on the Gulf of Mexico will become an 
emporium of wealth and commerce. 

On the 30th of December, we left on board the 
Mexico, bound for l!\'ew Orleans. As soon as the 
boat began to rock, Lovick, though greatly excited 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 131 

bj the novelty of every thing around him, and 
watching with eager eye the various water-fowls 
that followed the vessel, shared the fate of most 
voyagers upon the deep. Resisting with all his 
might, sea-sickness subdued him in two or three 
hours, and no wonder of the sea could rouse him 
to interest again. He kept his berth to the mouth 
of the Mississippi, save when he rose to pay his tri- 
bute to Xeptune. To us who kept well, the voyage 
was pleasant ; but some of the passengers suffered 
terribly. An old lady who had been put under 
my charge was sick, apparently ''nigh unto death." 
But by a kind Providence we all came safe to land, 
"without loss of the ship or of any man's life." 

We reached ^ew Orleans on Saturday before 
noon, passing up the river for at least three miles 
between steamboats, sloops, brigs, and ships. To 
an untravelled landlubber, there seemed to be 
vessels enough to do the carrying of all the world 
and "the rest of mankind." 

We tarried in Xew Orleans but a few hours, and, 
expecting in the order of duty to visit it ere long, 
I devoted my brief time to one or two friends 
whom I met at the hotel. 

' In the forenoon we took the Lake Ponchartrain 
Railroad, four miles long, to the Lake itself, where 
we went on board the steamer Florida, for Mobile. 



132 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

HoTv different this placid sheet of water from the 
muddj Mississippi, or the restless Gulf! The 
hoat was clean, well kept, the company quiet and 
agreeahle ; and so after supper we lay down for 
a good night's rest, expecting to be in Mobile by 
breakfast time. 

But the best-concerted schemes are vain, and all 
human hopes fallacious. On this very night began 
the long, wet, cold, freezing, snowy winter, the 
longest and the severest ever known in the South. 
A fos: came down so dense that nothins: but itself 
was visible. It was amusing to hear the steam- 
whistles as they shrieked through the darkness; 
each vessel warning the other of its presence, and 
seeming to say, "Don't run into me," or, "Take 
care of yourself: I'm a coming." It was like a 
congregation of owls hooting to one another in a 
swamp at midnight. 

"We were delayed several hours, and did not 
reach Mobile till eleven o'clock — too late for 
preaching. Withal, the rain was pouring down, 
and shut us up for the day. So passed my 
first Sabbath in Mobile. Denied the privilege of 
preaching, I consumed the afternoon in reading 
and meditation, and retired early, that I might be 
refreshed for the renewal of my journey homeward 
on the morrow. In the morning it was raining 



INCIDENTS OP WESTERN TRAVEL. 133 

still, and having to wait till late in the afternoon 
for a boat to Montgomery, we were once more 
thrown upon onr own resources for employment. 
We were stopping at the "Battle House," a first- 
class hotel — I have seen no better anywhere — and, 
amid the crowd which thronged its dining -hall 
and public rooms, I began to look around for 
some familiar face. Yery soon I recognized one 
and another. In the intervals of the showers we 
sallied out to see the town, and met several old 
Georgia friends, whose importunities to tarry we 
found it hard to resist. But four months' absence 
from home, almost without a letter, settled all 
these applications. 

In the afternoon, nearly night, the William Jones 
raised her steam or his steam, (as the reader pleases 
— the name is masculine, and the thing named 
feminine gender,) and we were off for Montgomery. 

The river was booming — the current strong. It 
was Christmas eve: we had many "darkies" 
aboard, going to see their friends, and to spend 
the holidays, and we were stopping at eveiy 
plantation. High waters, heavy freights, and pas- 
sengers, white or black, for every landing, made 
travelling very slow to one impatient to get home. 
For a fast age, I rather think it was slow motion 
anyhow. The weather grew intensely cold, and 



134 INCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

we were all sliut up in the cabin, doomed to sit 
around a red-hot stove, and wear away the dull 
days and nights as best we could. Having read all 
the books I had along, as is common with me in a 
crowd, I was "swift to hear, and slow to speak." 
On this occasion, as often before, I was struck 
with the utter emptiness of the general talk of 
mrmkind. In the multitude of words, how few 
thoughts ! How inane and vapid the ideas of men 
in their common conversation ! I should think 
less of it, if they did not seem to enjoy it. But 
with what gusto a man will sometimes say nothing ! 
With what zest and passion and imprecations men 
will jabber about the veriest trifles ! Man, I sup- 
pose, is a rational creature, but he deserves this 
distinctive title rather from the possession than the 
exercise of reason. In the main, we are foolish — 
very — in taste, talk, and action. 

Several of the passengers, wearied with them- 
selves and with one another, sought relief in cards. 
Having escaped this sight on the Cumberland, the 
Mississippi, the Missouri, the Gulf and the Lake, 
I was very sorry to see it on the Alabama. But 
these young men played and drank well-nigh half 
the trip. Every game was finished by a resort to 
the bar, where the losing party treated the rest to a 
dram and a cigar. All well drenched and well Jii^ed, 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 135 

thej would return to the table, play another game, 
and then for the bottle once more. They seemed 
"mighty to mingle strong drink," for none of 
them grew drunk. I am afraid they were used to 
it. In dress and manners they seemed to be well- 
bred, but I cannot help thinking that there is a 
most ominous obliquity of principle in any young 
man whose wickedness emboldens him to swear 
and drink and gamble, or to do either, unembar- 
rassed, in the presence of strangers, gray heads, 
and reverend ministers. 

TVe reached Montgomery between midnight and 
day. The whole town seemed wrapped in slumber 
too deep to be pierced by the engine's whistle. 
The captain of the boat dispatched messenger after 
messenger to notify the omnibus-drivers that there 
were loads of passengers at the wharf. The boat 
was going on to Wetumpka, and we had to go 
ashore and stand in the bleak night-wind, on the 
frozen bank, waiting to hear the rumbling wheels 
along the silent street. But we waited in vain. 
At last, finding a negro who promised to stand 
guard over our baggage, we went afoot to the 
city. The drowsy drivers were finally aroused to 
their duty. A warm fire and a cold breakfast 
prefaced our departure from the hotel to the rail- 
road d^pot. 



186 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

I slionld clieerfuLlly resign all mj interest, as a 
traveller, in liorses, buggies, and steamboats, to be 
assured on every route of a railroad. It is a grand 
invention. A pyramid is a regal toy compared 
with this modern contrivance for getting along. I 
trust that all which have been built will last for 
ever ; that all in progress wdll go on to completion ; 
that those which have been talked about wdll 
become realities, and that thousands more will be 
projected and finished. Success to them all ! 
Highways of travel and commerce, they facilitate 
intercourse, enrich the country, save time, and 
enable a man to see as much — to go as far in a few 
months — as in the ordinary lifetime of our grand- 
fathers. TVhat a boon to a man who has been 
long from home ! How swiftly they bear him on 
his way ! The iron horse seems to symjDathize 
with his impatience, and, breathing smoke and 
fire, bounds along his destined track as though he 
were glad to confer a favor. I acknowledge my 
indebtedness for his help on many a weary journey. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 137 



LETTER XVI. 

LEAVING MONTGOMERY — PASSENGER PUT OVERBOARD 

WALKING ON CROSS -TIES — IN GEORGIA ONCE MORE 

OBSTACLES AT HOME. 

We left Montgomery about daybreak for Ope- 
lika. The rains had been heavy, the weather was 
intensely cold, the road rather out of order, yet 
our speed was respectable. 

When day was fully come, the conductor came 
round, examining tickets and collecting passage- 
money. Two seats before me sat a man, well 
dressed and rather grave -looking. He oflered 
money which was declined ; he then refused to pay 
till he should reach West Point. His idea seemed 
to be, that change of place would improve the cur- 
rency of his bills. The conductor insisted on im- 
mediate payment — the man stubbornly refused. 
He was informed that he must pay or he would be 
put out. He sneered at the threat, and said he 
knew how to (J^fend himself. We all expected a 



138 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

fight, perliaps a little blood-letting. The man 
acted so foolishly, and the conductor was so clearly 
but doing his duty, that no one interfered by 
word or deed. The train was stopped, and the 
scuffle began. The conductor was overmatched in 
strength. He could not tear the fellow loose from 
his seat. Grasping the arm of his seat, he held on, 
offering no other resistance. Aid was summoned 
from another car, and the alliance was too strong 
for the rebellious passenger. He was torn from 
his moorings, dragged to the door, and very 
unceremoniously hurled down an embankment. 
Quickly rising, he faced his foe and rushed for the 
platform. By the time he was fairly on the road, 
the train was in motion, and his only chance was 
to seize the rear platform of the hindmost car: 
this he did, and was struggling to get on the now 
rapidly - moving train, when the conductor saw 
him. Rushing to him, by sundry stamps upon his 
fingers and kicks upon his person, he succeeded in 
detaching the man from his hold, and, unfortu- 
nately for the poor fellow, he fell just as the cars 
were passing a bridge in the middle of a long em- 
bankment: he dropped out of sight, and we saw 
him no more. The man's anxiety to get rid of a 
doubtful bill made him a fool. He had money, 
gold and silver and paper, and yet insisted on get- 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERX TRAVEL. 139 

tiug oif his spurious bills. I hope his reflections 
under the bridge will make him a wiser man. 

All along the route to-day we had rumors of 
land-slides, broken engines, and cars overturned ; 
and very soon we had ocular evidence of the truth 
of these statements. We found a noble engine on 
the way broken down and capsized ; and on reach- 
ing Opelika, the train from Columbus then due had 
not arrived. After waiting a long time, the pas- 
sengers prevailed on the conductor to send us on. 
ISTearly a mile from the Chattahoochee we were 
brought to a full stop by the caving in of the road. 
The train which ought to have met us at Opelika 
was there, the engine buried in mud and dirt — no 
chance to pass. Xow^ we must walk three miles 
round, by Girard, to Columbus, or foot it over the 
unfinished bridge by stepping from cross-tie to 
cross-tie, for a very considerable distance at either 
end. The middle was planked over. I deter- 
mined to risk the latter. The river was swollen, 
rushing and foaming below, and the wind blowing 
a gale above. I confess I did not like the experi- 
ment. Most of the passengers declined it, prefer- 
ring to wait till an omnibus could come round for 
them. My chief fear was for Lovick, but he 
thought he could venture it ; and so, with one 
other, we took up the line of march. To direct 



140 IXCIDE^^TS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

mj son's mind and mv own from tlie real dangers 
of the passage, (a misstep would have plunged us 
into the river,) I commenced a cheerful conversa- 
tion about home and the friends we were soon to 
see. We landed safely, hut a little weak about 
the knees. I cannot recommend walking over 
long, high bridges on cross-ties. Better wait for 
the omnibus. 

As we stepped from the bridge on the ground, 
we "shook hands in our hearts" with old Georgia. 
A veiy decided home-feeling came over us. A 
brief walk brought us to the house of my brother- 
in-law, Mr. Gambrill, and there I found my vener- 
able father, two sisters, and other friends. How 
pleasant these interviews after long separation ! 
Without the occasional salutations of kinsfolk, 
how lonely life would be ! Thank God for home 
sympathy and friends ! 

As a filial duty, and to gratify my own long- 
cherished affections, we tarried till the next day 
noon. We left Columbus on Friday afternoon, 
cheered with the hope of reaching home on Satur- 
day night. The long, hard rains had disarranged 
all the roads, and made travelling comparatively 
slow : the ordinary speed was dangerous. Never- 
theless, we reached Macon in due season, and 
were then within sixty miles of home. Here we 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 141 

learned that the Oconee river was impassable, and 
that we could not go through on the direct route. 
Disappointed, but not desponding, we took the 
train for Atlanta, resolving to go one hundred and 
thirty miles rather than not reach the end of the 
sixty. Reaching Atlanta, we took the Georgia 
road for Double Wells, expecting there to find the 
stage. On our arrival, to our dismay, we learned 
that the schedule had been changed, and that the 
stage would not leave till morning. There was 
but one more chance to carry out our plan of 
reaching home that night. So, mounting the cars 
once more, we set out for "Warrenton, where we 
proposed to hire a conveyance. In due course of 
events we reached Warrenton. Seventeen miles 
more to travel — the rain falling — roads bad — sun 
down — but we must go. ^N^ow for the livery- 
stable. Alas ! our troubles are not over yet. The 
horses were all hired out, and the only locomotives 
we could procure were a pair of pony-mules, not 
much bigger than a good Newfoundland dog, and 
not much faster than a yoke of steers. By the 
time we geared up ready for travel, the evening 
shades were on us, thickened by a cloudy sky and 
a misty rain. But we know the road, and can 
drive in the dark. The driver takes his seat, and 
off we move. One and another cried out as we 



142 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

passed along tlie street, "You cannot get home to- 
night : the creeks are swimming, and the bridge at 
the river is covered with water." I had crossed 
these streams many a time when they were very 
full, and concluded to try them again. On we 
went, by dint of jerks and shouts, and sprouts cut 
by the wayside, at the rate of two miles and a half 
per hour. The first, second, and third creeks were 
passed in safety, though with difficulty. The 
fourth and the worst was to come. Before we 
reached it we heard it was swimming from side to 
side, and that a man essaying to cross had nar- 
rowly escaped drowning. Still, on we went. By 
and by we came within sound of the rushing 
waters, and although it was too dark to see much, 
I was very well satisfied our little team could 
never navigate that roaring fiood. On land a mule 
has a way of his own ; but in water he will not 
obey his driver, and has not sense enough to 
choose for himself. He is a poor panic-stricken 
beast, and gives himself up to his fate. With 
good horses I should have tried to cross, but with 
Balaam and Balak I declined, and yielded to the 
doom I had labored to avoid. To lodge within 
ten or twelve miles of home was quite a trial ; but 
there was no alternative. We spent a very com- 
fortable night with Dr. Lynch, in spite of our dis- 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 143 

appointment. It seemed a little strange that all 
the troubles of so long a trip should have been 
gathered about its close ; but when I remembered 
how we had been favored with health and weather, 
had travelled by land and water four thousand 
miles and more, without accident or injury, I felt 
that we had neither right nor reason to complain. 
I^s'evertheless, if I had been called on, I think I 
could have made a stirring speech in favor of a 
railroad from Warrenton by Sparta to Macon. 
With the belief that this road would be built, I 
chose my home, but begin to think I shall be 
forced to change "Sunshine"* for "Shadydale," 
or some other more accessible place. 

Early next morning we set out to reach home, 
and relieve the anxiety of those who watched for 
our coming the last night. The light revealed the 
fact that we acted wisely in not braving the flood. 
We should have been swamped in the swollen 
waters. Our team, refreshed by a night's repose, 
and urged by the appliances for such cases made 
and provided, trotted along right merrily, and ere 
long our glad eyes looked upon loved faces and 
scenes familiar. TTe were at home. Yiro:in lands, 
unfelled forests, rolling prairies, all have their 

* The name of Bishop Pierce's residence in Georgia. — [Editor. 



144 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

charms ; but tlie old fields, the well-known roads, 
and even the red hills, endeared by long associa- 
tion and consecrated by toil and self-denial, are to 
me dearer still. As a man, I should never move 
to a new country for the sake of gain : as a 
preacher, I may, from a sense of duty and for the 
sake of usefulness. 




INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 145 



LETTER XVII. 

END OF THE FIRST TOUR THOUGHTS OX EMIGRATION TO 

THE WEST APPEAL TO LOCAL PREACHERS. 

My last letter brought me back to mj starting- 
point ; and now, to those who have followed me in 
mj wanderings, it will not be amiss to close with a 
few reflections. Besides the intrinsic fitness of 
such a conclusion, I am prompted by the express 
desire of some friends to give my notions of emi- 
gration to the West. To the Southern Atlantic 
States, this is a question of vital interest, not only 
as it may affect the private fortunes of individuals, 
but as it may determine the position of the South 
in the Union. Population is vastly important 
to us, in view of our numerical strength in the 
popular branch of Congress, and in the Electoral 
College. And it is a singular feature of the insti- 
tution of slavery, that the very prosperity of the 
country, so far at least as the rural districts are 
concerned, diminishes white population, by an 
inevitable law, under the present economy of 



1^6 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

tMngs. More negroes, more land ; and so the rich 
buy out the poor, and the poor retreat to richer and 
cheaper regions, to reenact, in their turn, the sa^me 
ruinous operation. It would be well if the leading 
minds of the country could be set on the projection 
of some scheme to neutralize the prevailing ten- 
dency — a tendency which, while it enlarges planta- 
tions, and increases the production of cotton, is 
converting once populous white settlements into 
mere negro-quarters. 

Under the present system of industrial pursuits 
and agricultural labor, emigration is- necessary — 
inevitable. The evil is not, remediless, if the 
people could be brought to look ahead, and to act 
msely. Direct importation would enlarge our 
cities ; manufactories would locate capital and give 
employment to the poor ; an improved husbandry 
would counteract the present fatal policy, and 
enrich and adorn the country; and all would 
operate to settle and multiply the people. The 
chano-e in agriculture is verv desirable, mis^ht be 
easily effected, and would be remunerative. But 
we are a blind, hasty, restless race ; and the hope 
of reform is exceedingly faint. To abate the rage 
for change of place, and to help those to act under- 
standingly who now think they must go, I will also 
show mine opinion. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 14T 

First, I will state two strikins^ facts. In a lono- 
travel through Missouri, Arkansas, Louisiana, and 
Texas, and in free conversation with almost all I 
met, I found but one who was glad he had moved. 
Many were very s6rry, and nearly all were restless 
and anxious to move again. Secondly : the gen- 
eral testimony is, that moving is expensive, hazard- 
ous, and seldom pays. I was very much struck 
with the unseitledness of the people. One great 
change seems to have unhinged them for life. 
Feverish, dissatisfied, persuaded they could do 
better by another trial, nearly everybody was will- 
ing to sell out and go farther. This, I take it, is a 
very unhappy state of mind, unfortunate for char- 
acter and fatal to improvement. I met quite as 
manv mo^T-ns: from Texas as movins: to it. This, 
however, is not the fault of the country. Most of 
these back-comers belong to that class who waste 
life in hunting for a place where people can live 
without work. Disappointed in their wild calcula- 
tions, they bring up an evil report of the land. 
Overtaking a perfect caravan of movers one day, I 
addressed myself to an old man and said, 

"Going to Texas?" 

'^That's the idee,'' he responded. 

"Where do you mean to settle?" 

"On the Colorado, a ketle above Austin." 



148 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTER ^^ TRAVEL. 

"Have yon ever been there?" 

" Xo ; bnt they tell me that is the conntiy, and I 
am o;oins: to see." 

iSTow that old man had very vivid idees of that 
region, and very likely will rn« the day he left 
Tennessee. My observation is, if a man wants to 
get rid of all home feelings, and to exhaust life in 
dreamy plans, vague hopes, and wandering desires, 
let him break up and be off; the recipe seldom 
fails. 

Lands in the States I mentioned are rich, 
cheap, and abundant ; the scenery diversified, often 
beautiful, picturesque, enchanting. I wondered, 
admired, almost coveted; and contrasting soil, 
scenery, and production with the bald, monoto- 
nous, exhausted regions of the older portions of 
Georgia and the Carolinas, I ceased to marvel at 
those who seek a new country. The temptation 
is strong to those who till the ground. But make 
the most of all these things, (and they can hardly 
be exaggerated,) there are many offsets and draw- 
backs for the present. One permanent objection 
is the water — generally scarce, most commonly bad, 
seldom tolerably fair. Chills and fever abound : 
they are incidental, and will pass away when the 
forests are felled and the country opened. Mar- 
kets are distant — almost inaccessible, save when 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 149 

there is a freshet in the rivers. House-building, if 
one aspires to any thing better than a log-cabin, is 
difficult and expensive. Saw-mills are scarce, and 
lumber hard to get. Many of the facilities and 
comforts of an old country are wanting ; and, on 
the whole, this is my conclusion : For those just 
setting out in life, mthout speedy and very mate- 
rial changes in the old States, it may be well to 
move, if they will take time and locate judiciously. 
The old ought never to move. I leave them out. As 
to the middle-aged, this is about the truth : K 
they are willing to sacrifice their personal convenience 
and enjoyments for the sake of their children and 
grandchildren, let them move. They will lose by 
the operation, but their descendants will, in all 
likelihood, be improved in fortune and outward 
circumstances. To make these sacrifices is some- 
times a duty, and to all under this obligation I 
say. Go and see for yourself You can find rich 
lands and clever people in any of these States, and 
places enough in market to give you ample room 
for choice. As a native citizen of Georgia, I 
would prefer that you should improve your old 
lands, build good houses, commodious churches 
and academies, and seek your graves at last in the 
valleys where your fathers sleep. Nevertheless, 
I shall not be surprised if you bend your steps 



150 INCIBEKTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

toward the setting sun, and sleep finally in the 
bosom of a Western prairie. 

Before I quit, a word or two to my brethren in 
the ministry, especially th^e local brethren. The 
Annual Conferences are rarely full, and fields of 
labor are multiplying from various causes even 
here ; so that the itinerant ranks can never supply 
the wants of the West without making a vacuum in 
the East. This state of things gives rise to a very 
serious question : as to you, my local brethren, I 
ask your attention to it. That many of you ought 
to separate yourselves from all worldly cares and 
studies, and to give yourselves wholly to the work 
of God, I have no doubt. How you ever took your 
ordination vows, without intending to do it as soon 
as possible, I do not understand. But I will not 
press this point now. I refer to it to rouse your 
mind to inquiry, and to incline you to seek a more 
promising field of action. 

In the old Conferences there are circuits within 
the bounds of which reside from ten to ticeniy local 
preachers ; frequently more preachers than appoint- 
ments : they are in each other's way. Taking it 
for granted that every man, moved by the Holy 
Ghost to enter the ministry, wishes to work all he 
can, (he is mistaken in his call if he does not,) let 
me ask, is it right for such a man voluntarily to 



INCIDENTS 



OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 151 



remain where lie is superseded by the necessities 
of the case? There is not room for all. Some 
must be idle, while others work ; or, if rotation be 
adopted, then all are sometimes idle — not from 
choice, but necessity. In the Sabbath congrega- 
tions of the circuit preacher, there are sometimes a 
half dozen local brethren, with the vows of God 
upon them to preach the word, unemployed, save 
as hearers. In view of the wants of the Church 
and the world, is this ministerial? K people 
perish for lack of knowledge, w^hile you clioose to 
live where you can do nothing for them, can you 
be innocent ? 

It may be a tax, an inconvenience, very unplea- 
sant to your natural feelings, to leave your home- 
stead, family, friends, and associations; but to us 
all on this subject, the language of Jesus Christ is 
strong, stern, imperative. "VTe must ''leave all and 
follow him." If we subordinate the great commis- 
sion to our tastes, affections, and worldly interests, 
we not only unscripturally modify our ministerial 
obligations, but impair the great principle of 
personal consecration. We live below the gospel 
standard, both as preachers and as Christians. If 
we would be holy and useful, we must deny our- 
selves and take up our cross. Xow, w^ith regard to 
many of you, it is true that there are more needy 



lc»2 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

places than where joii live. In those circuits 
where you are too thick to work, much less to 
thrive, there ought to be a thinning out for your 
own sakes — for the sake of the Church. In the 
language of the Discipline, we ought to go where 
we are most needed, and especially where the pro- 
babilities of usefulness are the strongest. We owe 
this to our Lord and Master, and to the souls for 
whom he died. In the AVest, there is room for you — 
you are needed : many places are waste, unoccupied 
for lack of laborers. This is true of the Indian 
Mission Conference, of the Arkansas, the Wachita, 
the East Texas and Texas Conferences. I make 
no suggestion as to which you should go, breth- 
ren. You will find enough to do in any ; nor do I 
say a word here as to whether you should travel or 
remain local. On this point, each must decide for 
himself: to our own Master we stand or fall. If 
you decline to join the Conference in Arkansas or 
Texas either, you may find eligible homes, fertile 
land, good society, and a sphere of action far more 
promising than where you now reside. In these 
States, the Church is extending, houses of worship 
are rising, colleges are projecting, schools are mul- 
tiplying, railroads are being located, and most of 
the inconveniences of a new country are passing 
away. The sacrifices — if I may use such a word 



INCIDEN-rs OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 153 

fibout a preaclier— are trifling, after all. Witli the 
blessing of Providence, a man may do well for 
himself and family by the change. I do not, 
however, recommend it on the score of temporal 
-advantage. The desire of gain when duly limited 
is legitimate. Commonly, it needs no incitement. 
I shall not appeal to it. I exhort the brethren to 
go on higher grounds. If it should turn out that 
your ministerial dut}' and earthly advantage har- 
monize, I shall be glad ; but even if you should 
lose for the kingdom of heaven's sake, be it so : 
still I say, go. To save souls, a man may well 
afford to sink money. Go — burning with the 
desire to do good : serve your generation accord- 
ing to the will of God : then you may charge all 
your losses to the Saviour's account. Usefulness 
here and heaven hereafter will make and keep you 
rich for ever. 




154 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTER XjYIII. 

ANOTHER TOUR — CONFERENCE INTERESTS MUTUAL — METHOD- 
ISM ALIKE EVERYWHERE — REASONS FOR WRITING FIRST 

STAGES OF THE JOURNEY NASHVILLE THE CUMBERLAND 

LOUISVILLE. 

Havixg proraised to jot clown a few "incidents 
of Western travel," which, occurred on my tour in 
the year 1856, I begin the allotted task in the 
present letter; hoping, by simple narrative and 
reflection, to promote various interests of our 
beloved Church. 

Methodism is ''a peculiar institution," and its 
connectional bonds, if not vital to it, are at least 
important to its efficiency as an organization. 
Stretching, as our Church does, over a vast terri- 
tory and a diversified population, any thing, every 
thing is valuable which gives information in detail 
of the action and fortunes of distant Conferences, 
and so contributes to interest each section in the 
history of every other. The diftusion of know- 
ledge — a knowledge of each other — is important to 
the unity of the Church. It will beget sympathy, 



INCIDEXTS OF WESTEKX TRAVEL. 155 

affection, bring about cooperation, and give im- 
petus to all our great enterprises. The people 
ought to know what the Episcopacy is about, what 
the several Conferences are doing; the location, 
condition, and results of our missions ; and, indeed, 
every thing that characterizes our policy and its 
issues. I do not believe in Church secrets. Let 
the people know what is wanted, and why ; what is 
doing, and how. One in doctrine, discipline, eco- 
nomy, let us learn to know and to love each other, 
so that if one member suffers, all the rest may suf- 
fer with it. If Methodism prospers in Missouri, 
let Virginia thrill with the tidings : if the prairies 
of Kansas blaze with religious fervor, let the 
mountains of Tennessee clap their hands : if the 
missions of South Carolina, Georgia, and Alabama 
multiply in members and in membership, let Ken- 
tucky shout her thanksgiving : if Arkansas comes 
up from the wilderness, fair as the sun, let the old 
IN'orth State rejoice and be . exceeding glad: if 
Texas goes on from grace to grace, waxes stronger 
and stronger, let Mississippi and Florida glory in 
her rising star, and let each Conference provoke 
every other to love and to good works. 

In visiting Conferences where I was an entire 
stranger, I have often felt exhilarated by the ho7nc- 
feeling that comes over me as soon as business be- 



156 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

gins. Far, very far from my native Conference, 
yet I liear the old familiar phrases, progress in the 
same order, feel the same spirit pervading all, 
mingle in the house of God in the same simple 
ser^dce, and realize that Methodism is everywhere 
a living, spiritual organism, flexible enough to 
adapt itself to eveiy form of society, and yet, with- 
out the compromise of her doctrines or her econo- 
my, aggi'essive enough to multiply her conquests 
and to extend her borders, without weakening her- 
self in her old domain ; and, in all places, a genial, 
expansive, warm-hearted system, moulding thought 
and character on the best pattern of Christian ex- 
perience and gospel achievement. Plowever some 
may malign and persecute her, and whatever her 
real faults, (and I do not claim perfection for her,) 
the mission of Methodism is grand — sublime. 
Her world-wide plans, generous sympathies, catho- 
lic doctrines ; her disdain of difficulties and love of 
entei'prise ; her heroic pioneers, and self-sacrificing 
ministiy, and ever-growing membership, all attest 
her providential origin, progress, and destiny. I 
like Athens, and Antioch, and Corinth, and Rome ; 
but Jerusalem — our Jerusalem — most of all. Peace 
be within her walls, and prosperity within her 
palaces ! 

These letters are written with the hope that 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 157 

they may increase the connectional feeling, in- 
terest those in the bounds of their circulation in 
behalf of the more distant Conferences, and, by 
narrative, incident, reflection, and appeal, illustrate 
the workings of Methodism, show the labors and 
trials of its agents, and help, by the blessing of 
God, to rouse ministers and members to more self- 
denial, liberality, and devotion. 

It is a singular fact, in relation to the human 
mind, that what we dread while it is anticipated, 
and suflfer under while enduring it, nevertheless, in 
the memory of it, becomes a source of pleasure. 
Hence soldiers, sailors, and travellers love to relate 
the accidents of field and flood, highway and 
lonely path, swimming stream and dark defile ; the 
hair -breadth escapes, the toil and suffering of 
march and voyage. Go where they may, these 
talkers find ready listeners, and, if they write a 
decent story, will always find eager readers. In 
this age of locomotion, when there is not only 
along the highway of nations "here and there a 
traveller," but a perfect caravan of wanderers, and 
consequently of books, sketches, and letters without 
end, the world's appetite still cries, ''More! more !" 
Children, young people, "old folks at home," all 
like to hear and to read. Without stopping to 
explain the tastes of mankind in this respect, the 



158 I2s'CIDE2CTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

philosoplij of tlie feeling, so far as the actors are 
concerned, is easy to understand. T^Tien at the 
call of duty or patriotism, or even from the love of 
adventure, one has triumphed over distance and 
danger, fear and fatigue, a very pleasant self-com- 
placency ensues. The man has a better opinion 
(and vrith reason, too) of himself — his manliness, 
his muscles, his vrill and courage. He Trho has 
overcome difficulty, braved danger, endured suffer- 
ing in a righteous cause, has an element of enjoy- 
ment, a sort of private luxury, to which the timid 
sluggards, dainty and nervous, are utter strangers. 
'Now, I have nothing very strange to tell, cer- 
tainly do not mean to magnify myself, and yet I 
confess to pleasure in the recollection that I have, 
as a man and a preacher, proved my faith by my 
v^orks, sustained my principles by my practice, 
and have done what I believe and teach others 
ought to do. To leave a home a man loves — his 
wife in tears, his children loth to let him go — four 
naonths of long travel and work before him — is no 
small tax upon one's natural feelings. Before the 
time to start shall have arrived, the thought of it 
will come to cast its shadow upon the brightness 
of the passing hour; and when he is gone, the 
long days and weary nights will hang heavy upon 
Ms hands, save as work and pleasant company may 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 159 

beguile his absence and loneliness ; and then ach- 
ing bones, the weariness of long rides, and all the 
discomforts of misnamed '^ entertainment " on the 
roadside, will make him long, now and then, for 
the comforts of his own quiet fireside, and the 
sweetest music of earth — the voices of those we 
love, all mingling in welcome, inquiry, and con- 
gratulation. By and by the tri^D is made, the work 
is done ; and at home and at rest, he forgets his 
sorrows, "as waters that pass away." 

On the 28th of August, 1856, 1 left home for Kan- 
sas. The old hack which runs daily back and forth 
from Sparta to Gumming, was fortunately out of 
order, and a very clever little carriage, rather the 
worse for wear, had been substituted. "Parson 
Brown" and his compeer, worn down with service 
and full of honors, had retired from the "Line," 
and Mr. R., the driver, gloried in another team. 
Of their speed and bottom I say nothing, except 
that I arrived in time to take the night train up 
the Georgia Railroad. It was my plan to stop and 
preach the next day (the Sabbath) in Madison. In 
the morning, however, an equinoctial storm was in 
full blast. The rains descended, the winds raged 
all the day, and amid the war of elements the 
church-going bell was still. The night was tem- 
pestuous, and so I remained till the following day. 



160 INCIDENTS OP WESTER2^ TRAVEL* 

My nephew and namesake — whose ambition to 
travel had been roused by Lovick's stories of the 
former trip — by his father's consent, concluded to 
go with me. 

The route to l^ashville is too familiar for de> 
scription. Without any accident or incident, we 
reached that point in due course of mail. We 
stopped with my old friend and brother, the Rev. 
J. E. Evans, who, whatever his dislike for the mer- 
cantile drudgery of the Publishing House, has 
managed his own finances so well as, in conjunc- 
tion with his better half, to make the bed and 
board of himself and friends ve/y comfortable. 
The Cumberland, despite my former eulogy, I 
found very low — too low for navigation. Dr. 
Green, who sticks to what he says, insisted that I 
might go down on some little craft, the name of 
which I have forgotten, but everybody else said, 
^'Take the stao-e to Louisville." The truth then 
must be told — the Cumberland does become 
'^ Goose Creek" in very dry weather. At such a 
time, however, the Ohio nearly ceases to run, and 
the Father of Waters uncovers many a sandbank. 
With undiminished respect for its general capa- 
city, and only slightly abated confidence in its 
volume and depth, I hope it will rise high enough 
and keep up long enough to carry off many 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 161 

steamboat loads of Methodist literature for "West- 
ern distribution. 

Ten passengers and two hundred miles of sta- 
o'ino: — startinsr at two o'clock in the mornins: I But 
the road is macadamized, and there is no other 
way to reach Kansas Conference in time. Come, 
George, wake up ! we must go. 

On the second day, about dark, and in a 
hea^'y shower, we drove up to the Gait House 
in Louisville. This is a well-kept establish- 
ment — table, bed, rooms, all good. I rested 
soundly, and George, whose excitement had kept 
him awake pretty much since we left Georgia, 
here "caved in," and slept profoundly. The cir- 
cumstances of our arrival — the fatigue, the dark- 
ness, the rain — all forbade visiting, and so I did 
not call on any of the brethren, ^"lien the morn- 
ing dawned, I was struck with the growth and 
improvement of the city. I had not seen it since 
the Convention of 1845. It will compare well 
with any Western city — in some things it exceeds 
them all. 



162 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL 



LETTER XIX. 

TO INDIANAPOLIS CONFUSION AN ELECTION TERRE 

HAUTE — PROGRESS — A DISTILLERY^-ILLINOIS ST. LOUIS^ 

AND THENCE TO JEFEERSON CITY. 

Rising early on the morning of tlie 3cl of Sep- 
tember, we took the omnibus, and, crossing tlie 
Ohio in a ferry-boat, soon reached the depot of the 
Jeifersonville and Indianapolis Railroad. The cars 
were full, and the rush of the iron horse was but a 
type of the spirit which seemed to move the 
people. Business, pleasure, politics — each had 
representatives in the mixed multitude. "We soon 
reached Indianapolis, the capital of Indiana, and 
the centre of her railroads. 

Eight roads diverge from this point; and the 
traveller has use for both eyes, and must needs 
show his kinship with the great Yankee nation, by 
asking sundiy questions, or he may find himself 
on the wrong train : on this da}^ the confusion was 
great, and is no less, perhaps, any other day. The 



IXCIDEXTS OF W ESTER X TRAVEL. 1G3 

engine whistles, the caterers for the city hotels, the 
porters, the hackdrivers, the agents of rival routes, 
all take part in the noise and bewilderment. It is 
Babel without its terror, or Bedlam without its 
maniacs. Everj^body seems to understand his busi- 
ness, and to have a single eye to his interest ; and 
the best way to escape from the tormentors, is to find 
out what you wish to do, and go right at it, as 
though you were blind and deaf to all beside. 
"With some experience in such scenes, and some- 
what gifted in getting through a crowd, I never- 
theless found myself without a seat in a train of 
eight cars. My trunk — an important article on a 
long trip — seemed as if it would never come forth 
from its hiding-place, and my care to see it safely 
transferred involved me in no little discomfort for 
a time. One of the employees of the road, by and 
by, came to my relief, for which I looked my thanks. 
He did not give me time to express the gratitude I 
felt. Another came by ere long and informed me 
that those seats were reserved for ladies, and that I 
must move. To him I looked. "Xo;" and as he 
waited for an answer, I informed him that I would 
move when I saw a lady without a seat, and not 
till then, unless he would provide me with another. 
He promised to do so, but I saw him no more. 
Our trip to-day was enlivened by an election. It 



164 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

excited as inucli interest as tliougli the issue really 
involved the destiny of the nation. Men, women, 
children, were all eager to learn the result, and 
received the report with sad or beaming faces, 
according to their partialities. These elections 
were common on all the public routes, by land and 
water ; and it is a little strange that, however they 
might indicate individual preference, they were 
exponents of public sentiment in hardly a single 
instance. Many of these reports found their way 
into the papers, and became the basis of the most 
delusive calculations, and were appealed to as data 
by which to regulate bets and to stimulate party 
zeal. Vihj these straws did 7iot show which way 
the wind blew, I shall leave these political philoso- 
phers to settle, as best they can. 

"We dined at Terre Haute.- The house in which 
we ate was an extempore affair, but ''mine host" 
provided well for his numerous guests, and by his 
fare and his politeness earned his half-dollar from 
each. 

It is unfair to make up an opinion of a State, its 
soil, or its people, by what one sees along the line 
of any of its great thoroughfares. The curious 
gazers or the active workers about depots are not 
specimens, even of the masses. They are not 
examples of either the manners or the morals of 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 165 

the commuuity to which they belong. Much, 
however, meets the eye, to indicate the general 
character of the country and its inhabitants. 
From the visible signs, I should consider Indiana 
in progress of rapid development. Her people 
seem busy and enterprising : villages and factories 
of various kinds abound. TTithin ten miles I 
counted seven embryo towns — places with a name ; 
and each struo^o^lins: for reco2:nition in the next 
edition of American Geography. The style of 
building shows that the people are "progressive." 
Modern fashions prevail. Here and there some 
old. fogy defies the order of the day, and builds as 
his grandfather used to build. 

I am sorry to say that I saw on the line a large 
icldshj distillery^ where the precious grain of the 
earth, which God intended to be food for man and 
beast, is converted into liquid poison, and then 
cashed and barrelled for a sort of itinerant destruc- 
tion of men. These drink and perish. The swine, 
I learned — indeed, I saw — fare better. They are 
fattened by thousands on the sicill of the establish- 
ment. The sight of the pens is enough to disgust 
one with hogs and whisky too. It is said that the 
odors, in a hot day, loeul the surrounding atmo- 
sphere, and taint the air for miUs. Those who live 
and work on the premises must be — what shall I 



166 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

call them ? — martyrs, suicides, or pirates ? Or are 
they a nondescript compound of all the three ? I 
saiv more, smelt more than was pleasant, in passing 
at the rate of twenty miles an hour. 

The " Hoosier" State is not equal to the land of 
the "Suckers" for fertility of soil. Illinois con- 
tains as much rich farming-land as any State in 
the Union, I judge, unless Missouri he the excep- 
tion. I have seen rather more of the latter, and 
would give it the premium with the lights before 
me. A more extensive observation of Illinois 
might alter my opinion. The country is beautiful 
in scenery. Prairies which are perfect plains, and 
forests of the finest timber, and soil rich, deep, 
enduring, make it a very desirable farming region, 
and will fill it after a while with a population as 
dense as that of China, is'ight came upon us in the 
midst of a vast prairie ; and as darkness and sleep 
cut off" observation, we will roll quietly along by the 
way of Alton, to the de^Dot on the great Mississippi 
opposite St. Louis. 

At two A. M. we arrive. The omnibus is ready 
— all aboard — over the ferr^^ — in St. Louis. T\"e 
stop at the Planter's House, and find every room 
full. Weary, sleepy, what shall we do till morning 
light appears? "Is the sitting-room occupied?" 
"N"o." Away we go. Ah! here is a settee. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. IGT 

With cloak and overcoat for pillow and covering, 
I laid .me down to sleep. George tied a couple of 
chairs together with his handkerchief, and found a 
position, after many experiments, to suit him— a 
kind of half-recumbent, half-hanging position— 
and we heard no more of him till sunrise. Break- 
fast over, we sallied out to see the city, and called 
upon some friends. The preachers were gone, 
some to camp-meeting, some to distant appoint- 
ments ; and so, after visiting the Advocate Office, 
and looking over the papers, we prepared to leave 
for Kansas. Dining early, we hastened to the cars 
of the Pacific Kailroad, and took tickets for Jeffer- 
son City. I described this road in a former letter, 
and will not repeat. I will only add, that since 
the fatal accident, last October a year ago, so far as 
prudent management and painstaking oversight 
are concerned, it may now, despite its apparent 
dangers, be considered as safe as any other. 

We reached the city about dark, and immedi- 
ately went aboard one of the packets which run 
daily, in connection with the railroad, to all points 
up the Mississippi river as high as St. Joseph. 
From this point matters of more interest will pass 
before us. 



168 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTEE XX. 

TO KANSAS AN INFORMAL SERVICE KANSAS RUMORS — 

IMAGINARY DANGERS — GOVERNOR GEARY GOVERNOR 

SHANNON THE ''BORDER RUFFIANS" KANSAS CITY 

DESCRIPTION THEREOF. 

"When we took the steam packet at Jefferson 
City on Saturday niglit, it was my purpose to stop 
and preach, at Boonville. The river, however, was 
low, and though the boats kept moving up and 
down, none of them could calculate their time ex- 
actly. "Wlien they would strike, how long they 
would stick, no man could tell. After many in- 
quiries, and at the request of the captain and pas- 
sengers, I concluded to move on and preach upon 
the boat. The service was informal as to its order. 
We had no singing. I can sometimes start a tune, 
and, if others will join me, can hold on to it and 
carr}^ it through the hymn ; but without aid, I am 
apt to indulge in a little variety — mixing the 
metres, contrary to science and all the recognized 
standards. Having no helper, I declined any ex- 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 169 

periment. Reading the Scriptures, prayer and 
preaching made up the service. I addressed the 
irreligious, and pressed the importance of imme- 
diate decision and personal conversion. The emo- 
tion of my own. spirit and seriousness of my au- 
dience, with the tears of some, inspired the hope 
that eternity will reveal fruit, as the result of that 
day's sowing. 

We had aboard Governor Geary and his Secre- 
tary, and a committee appointed by a public meet- 
ing in St. Louis to visit Kansas and report the real 
state of affairs, with some other officials of the 
General Government and of the Territory. Of 
course, Kansas and its troubles were the topics of 
hourly conversation. Before leaving home, and on 
the route, I had read all the stories of wrong and 
outrage, blood and death, which had been published 
to inflame the country and make capital for the 
political speculators. In such a struggle I knew 
that partisan reports were not to be relied on, and 
that rumors grew as they travelled; and with a 
mind open to receive the truth, I listened to those 
who claimed to know all about the soil, the people, 
the parties, the battles, the plans for the future. 
If I had been perplexed by what I read, I was con- 
founded by what I heard. The thread of history 

became more knotty and tangled. The nearer I 
8 



170 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

came to the scene of action, tlie more doubtful, 
contradictory, and uncertain was all I heard. The 
honest did not know what was true, and the de- 
signing manufactured to order. There was no 
limit to tales but the power of indention ; and the 
public mind, excited and exasperated, was credu- 
lous to weakness. The most fabulous account 
found ready listeners and believers. If I had been 
like-minded, the Kansas Mission Conference would 
not have met, or at least would have been without 
a bishop. 

One man, who seemed to know everybody out 
there, and to be posted in the history of the past 
and the prophecy of the future, besought me most 
earnestly not to put my foot ashore : said the idea 
of holding a Conference anywhere in the Territory 
was an absurdity — downright madness — an utter 
impossibility; that my life would be in danger 
every step I took ; and this he said with emphasis, 
for he verily believed it. When I told him my 
route and plan of travel, he pronounced it the very 
worst I could take : he knew every foot of it : there 
was more timber, deeper, darker thickets than any- 
where else, and in -his imagination there was a rifle 
and a marauder behind every bush. I said to 
him, "My friend, you are scared, excited." 

" IsTo, sir, I speak the truth ; and if you go on, 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 171 

you will find it as I tell you. You are not safe, 
except with a large company, well armed." 

"Very w^ell, I shall try it without company save 
my little nephew, and without gun, or pistol, or 
knife." 

With a look which seemed to say, " You are a 
fool," he said he had given me "fair warning in 
kindness and truth. You can go, but you will 
hold no Conference, and most likely will never see 
home again." Wlien the time came for us to part, 
he hade me farewell very kindly and renewed his 
admonition. 

Governor Geary is a tall, good-looking man, 
vdthout any very striking feature, of easy manners, 
pleasant in conversation ; and he seemed to have 
very just views of his duties and responsibilities. 
He impressed me very favorably. At several 
towns on the river, as we ascended, he was called 
out to make a speech, and essayed the task, but 
did not succeed very well. His talent does not 
run that way. He is a man of plain, strong com- 
mon sense ; talks fluently and intelligently : has 
travelled — held office — is decided — has a strong 
will — thinks for himself, and will command respect 
and maintain authority anywhere. His appoint- 
ment w^as opportune ; and if he had been the first 
governor instead of the last, less blood would have 



172 INCIDEXTS OF WESTEKN TRAVEL. 

been shed, and the " freedom-shriekers " would 
have had more patriotic employment. 

"Wlien we reached Glasgow, we found a boat at 
the landing and a crowd upon the bluff. Governor 
Shannon was in the boat, returning from Kansas. 
Governor Geary sent for him. They had an inter- 
view, and Governor Shannon's report was indeed 
alarming, if it had not been apparent that he him- 
self was panic-stricken. He had tried to conciliate 
when he ought to have punished — to harmonize 
belligerent factions, when he ought to have stood 
firmly upon the law — until the elements of strife 
waxed into war, and he, powerless and without 
authority or influence, was driven from his post. 
He informed Governor Geary that every road in 
the Territory was strewed with the dying and the 
dead; and his opinion seemed to be, that there 
could be no arbiter but the sword, and no peace 
but by the annihilation of one of the parties. A 
man of peace, he was not fitted for the emergency. 
All — friends and foes — agree that he desired to do 
his duty, but lacked nerve for the crisis. 

Here a company of Missourians came on our 
boat, en route for Kansas and the war. They were 
armed for slaughter — guns in their hands, pistols 
by their sides, bowie-knives in their bosoms. 
With courage equal to their resources, they would 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 173 

have made a desperate fight. Having read many 
hard things of the "Border Euffians," I deter- 
mined to mingle with them, get their ideas, learn 
their spirit, and find out what manner of men they 
were. Let me premise : this company of near a 
hundred men were a fair specimen of those who 
have gone from Missouri to take part in the terri- 
torial strife. They were generally plain, humhle, 
honest farmers, or young men from the country, 
called out, as they thought, hy a great public ne- 
cessity. They were not adventurers, seeking land 
or notoriety. Much less were they propagandists, 
seeking to force an obnoxious institution upon an 
unwilling people. They proclaimed themselves 
the friends of law and order, ofiered their services 
to Governor Geary in upholding legitimate au- 
thority, and declared they would not fire a gun, 
nor strike a blow, save under the order of those 
whose business it was to command. On a crowded 
boat, with every thing in the hourly tidings from 
Kansas to excite them, they behaved themselves 
with propriety. They were quiet, polite, orderly. 
There was no drunkenness, no obscenity, no ribald 
song, no profanity. Governor Geaiy, who had cer- 
tainly thought that the name '•''Border KnffiarC' was 
descriptive — at least meant something not very 
complimentary to character, manners, or spirit — 



174 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TEAVEL. 

expressed himself to me as surprised and gratified 
with what he saw and heard. He felt that his 
work would be easier, his difficulties less than he 
had expected. It c^uld not be much of a task to 
govern such men. Further observation confirmed 
the good opinion I formed of them, and satisfied 
me that whatever may have been the outrages of 
individual desperadoes, the organized bands of Mis- 
souri had been grossly slandered, both as to their 
intentions and their acts. Exasperated by num- 
berless provocations, some imprudences were com- 
mitted, I doubt not ; but after acquainting myself 
on the spot with the opinions and temper and 
wishes of her people, if Missouri needed an advo- 
cate before the country, I would volunteer in her 
defence. The truth of history will be her vindi- 
cation and her eulogy. 

As far as I can, without mixing myself with par- 
ties and politics, in the progress of these letters, 
I shall give a faithful account of what I saw, heard, 
and thought in this disputed territory. Very likely, 
it will appear that if the South loses Kansas, she 
will be more to blame than those (with all their 
faults — I may add crimes) who have warred upon 
her institutions. 

Some time after midnight we reached Kansas 
City, a thrifty town near the mouth of Kansas 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 175 

river, but in the State of Missouri. Here the vol- 
unteers also landed, and immediately set about 
their prejDarations for marching in the morning. 
George and I retreated to the hotel, and, after long 
delay, succeeded in obtaining a bed. 

The site of Kansas City is about the last place 
where a common man would have thought of lo- 
cating a city. Perpendicular hills — hills oval — 
hills ragged — long slopes — abrupt ascents, with 
ravines and gorges, deep or yawning wide in wild 
confusion — all seemed to forbid house -building 
thereabout. But it is a good point for trade ; and 
so Mammon — or Anglo-Saxon energy, or Ameri- 
can entei-prise, just as you please — has dug and 
levelled and built. The houses fronting the river 
are reared against the bluff, with its summit far 
above the roof; and in the rear end, and erven in 
the third story, you have the earthy odor peculiar 
to a newly dug cellar. Yet, with all its ups and 
downs, trade flourishes, and the city grows. 




176 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL, 



LETTER XXI. 

FROM KANSAS CITY TO WESTPORT FACE OF THE COUNTRl 

BUSTLING TIMES AN ACQUAINTANCE BLACK CARPET- 
BAGS A SHARPE's rifle — SHAWNEE MISSION — A RICH 

FARM A RIDE— THE QUAKER MISSION ATCHISON's 

CAMP THE CLIMATE. 

Retiring just before day, we slept till breakfast. 
Soon after, the back, wbicb runs daily to "Westport, 
called at tbe door for passengers. "We took our 
seats, and departed to run tbe gauntlet of wbicb 
my steamboat friend bad notified me. i^ot so 
mucb from courage as from downrigbt unbelief, we 
rode along witb perfect composure, making obser- 
vations on men and tbings in general. Tbe coun- 
try is broken, but ricb and beavily timbered ; tbe 
soil deep, dark, and capable of producing any 
agricultural product adapted to tbe climate. Tbe 
cattle — of tbe finest stock and tbe best of tbeir 
kind — keep fat on blue-grass and clover, and, com- 
pared witb our Soutbern nmts, make a Soutbern man 
feel like coming bome and slaying bis ;pony berds. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 177 

The settlement of Kansas — the Emigration and 
the Immigration — soldiers and travellers— have 
made a harvest for the dwellers on the wayside. 
On this day every thing seemed to he astir. Eques- 
trians and pedestrians lined the road, and the 
counter-currents indicated that the points of attrac- 
tion were very different. Some were fleeing from 
strife, others rushing into it. The signs of some- 
thing afoot grew thicker as we approached West- 
port, and on our arrival we found the streets full and 
all in motion : market-carts, camp-wagons, soldiers, 
citizens, oxen, horses, white people, Indians — a 
motley group, a mixed crowd. The men were 
looking and talking in groups as if there were 
some grave business on hand. An entire stranger, 
I walked about and mused upon the scene before 
me. Presently a man in camp-costume, and armed 
(as an old acquaintance of mine used to say) " in a 
cap-a-pie jpoint of vieiv,'' stepped up, and, to my sur- 
prise, called me by name, and said: "T\niat are 
you doing here ? You are the last man I expected 
to see in this country." I told him my business, 
and he too thought I had as well go home : it was 
no time for preaching or Conference. As soon as 
I could rectify my vision, despite the slouched hat, 
the unshaved face, the gray flannel shirt, and the 
odd accoutrements of an impromptu knight, I 



178 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

recognized a former student of Emoiy College. It 
was quite refreshing to talk witli Mm, as lie seemed 
well informed of men and events. 

George was greviously insulted by a company of 
Young Americans who inquired of him if we were 
not Yankees and abolitionists. Their suspicions 
were awakened by the color of his travelling-bag. 
I found afterward that a ^?ae^' travelling - bag was 
considered as a type and token of the region from 
which a man comes — in fact, the hoAge of a Neio 
Englander. The recruits sent out by the "Emi- 
grant Aid Society" were furnished with these 
articles, I guess, because they were cheap, and not 
because the color symbolized their sentiments and 
their mission. Xo matter how it came to pass, a 
black satchel furnishes a violent presumption against 
a man with one of the parties. 

After a while, I found Brother Johnson, the 
superintendent of the Shawnee Mission ; and as 
soon as he could arrange for it, we set out for his 
hospitable mansion. At "Westport we were still in 
Missouri, though near the Kansas line. This is a 
flourishing town — trades largely with the whites 
and Indians, and is one of the points of departure 
for the Sante Fe mail, and for trade in "the 
Plains" in the far, far West 

From this busy town it is two or three miles to 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 179 

where Brother Johnson lives. For a mile or two 
we journeyed along the road leading to the camp, 
where the army had been appointed to rendezvous. 
Presently we overtook a '^ solitary horseman," as 
James would say ; that is, he was alone, though 
many more were in sight, behind and before. As 
we approached him, the young man who was driv- 
ing asked me if I ever saw a Sharpe's rifle. I told 
him I never did. " That man," said he, " has one ; 
if you would like to see it, I will ask him for it." 
Signifying ray desire to see that far-famed instru- 
ment, he called the horseman by name, and told 
him I wished to see his gun. He rode up and 
handed it to me, coolly remarking that a few days 
ago he had killed a man with it at three hundred 
yards. The driver confirmed the statement by 
adding, "I saw him do it." This "deed was per- 
formed at the battle of Osawattamie. The rifle is 
short and very heavy, but cannot be shot with 
accuracy, except at a very long range. Indeed, I 
was told that they were more to be dreaded at a 
half mile distance than a hundred yards. This 
is a pretty tough yarn, but is commonly reported. 

We soon reached the Mission House, dined, and 
spent the afternoon in conversation, reading the 
papers, and resting. The school for the Indian 
boys and girls was just reopened, after a brief 



180 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

vacation, and but few had as yet returned. After 
a night of sound repose, Brother Johnson brought 
out his well-fed steeds, and we rode over the finest 
farm I think I ever saw. Such a combination of 
water, timber, prairie, and soil, is rarely met with. 
Such a herd of cattle ! O the milk, butter, and 
beef! This is the very country for a lazy man, if 
he is not too lazy to provide in summer for winter. 
A four months' diligence will secure the material 
wherewithal to purchase the privilege of shutting 
himself up to eat, sleep, and toast the rest of the 
year. 

After dinner, the carriage and the mules — which 
were mules, not in temper but in size — were 
brought out, and Brother Johnson and his wife, 
and George and I, took our seats for an evening 
jaunt upon the prairies. First, we visited the mis- 
sionary. Brother Bolles. After a pleasant inter- 
view with himself and family, we returned, passing 
by the Mission church and the Shawnee Camp- 
ground. Here these once wild men meet to sing 
and pray, and hear the gospel. How obstinate the 
unbelief of the world and the Church, about the con- 
version of the Indians ! Admit all the difficulties : 
what then ? Must they be cast off, as though never 
included in the covenant of redemption ? Go 
preach the gospel to every creature — except the 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 181 

Indians : is that tlie reading ? jSTo, no. Let the 
Church sow beside all waters, and trust the " Hus- 
bandman" for the harvest. 

We passed the Quaker Mission, and found the 
premises abandoned, under a threat of Lane's men 
to attack and burn the houses. I understood the 
]Droperty would be for sale. 

It was our purpose, in the course of the ride, to 
visit the camp of the army, and when we learned 
its location, we steered for that point. By and by 
we came in sight of the encampment ; and, verily, 
it was a sight to a green one, who had never seen 
"war's grim array." The tents were pitched on 
the slope of an open prairie, beside a little stream 
runnino; at its base. As we rolled alons^ on the 
ridge, the whole panorama was visible. A thou- 
sand horses or more, of all sizes, colors, and condi- 
tions, were "staked out," and left to graze. This 
staking out is a very simple and convenient 
arrangement. A rope, from thirty to fifty feet 
long, is tied around the horse's neck, and at the 
other end is a pin of iron or wood, which is driven 
into the ground, and the horse can crop the grass 
within a circle, of which the pin is the centre and 
the rope the radius — where the grass is good — 
ample scope for a night's feasting. 

The army was computed to muster twenty-seven 



182 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

hundred men ; but tliey were not yet all come in. 
The chiefs were waiting to concentrate the "host," 
before the descent upon Lawrence. As we drew 
near, some were manceuvering an old cannon ; 
some were cooking, some lounging in the grass, 
some inspecting their weapons. On reaching the 
line of encampment, a soldierly-looking man very 
gravely ordered us to halt, and give the password. 
TTe confessed our ignorance. He expressed his 
regret at having to stop us, but said he must obey 
orders. Just as we were despairing of entrance, 
my quondam friend of the gray flannel shirt came 
to our rescue. Being a man in authority, the 
sentinel bowed, dropped his gun, and we had the 
freedom of the Camp. Here I was introduced to 
Generals Atchison, Clarke, and others. Colonel 
Titus, Sheriff Jones — still lame from his wounds — 
with other notabilities. They talked calmly of the 
wi'ongs of the Territory — of the outrages upon 
unoffending citizens, and of the necessity laid upon 
them to expel, by ball and bayonet, the perpetrators 
of these lawless deeds. "While I was present, a 
woman of decent appearance came in and made 
affidavit, that the night before, five men, all dis- 
guised, came to her habitation, roused her from 
sleep, ordered her out, and burnt the house, with all 
its contents. She named two or three, whom she 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 183 

said she recognized by their voices. At the sound 
of their names, I could hear low murmurs of ven- 
geance from some of the men around. They were 
well known, it seemed, and were famed for vio- 
lence and the plunder of the weak. 

We tarried but a short time, as I was anxious to 
extend my ride into the prairies. On retiring, we 
ascended a long hill, and on reaching its summit 
and looking back, the scene was very picturesque. 
Forget the facts and circumstances which con- 
vened those men, and the object they had in view, 
and there was much of the beautiful in the vision 
before me. The white tents, the particolored cos- 
tumes, red and gray predominating ; the tethered 
horses, the patient oxen, half buried in grass ; life 
in various forms, all eager and in motion; the 
softened hum of the camp, as it came floating on 
the prairie wind — all made a life-picture, to copy 
which would make an artist's fortune. We turned 
our eyes away to look upon more quiet scenes, the 
rolling prairies, the yellow flowers, the waving 
grass, and the silent sky. 

From what I heard and from all I saw, I must 
say that kansas is a beautiful country. As to land, 
verdure, and climate, I saw it under very favorable 
circumstances. The cold in winter is terrible. 
In September, the thermometer was nearly up 



184 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



to ninety. The weather, though extremely cold 
sometimes, is variable, and often very warm in 
autumn. "We closed a pleasant ride near sunset, 
and found that one of the preachers (Brother Eice) 
had arrived during our absence. He was on his 
way to Conference. 




INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 185 



LETTEKXXII. 

KICKAPOO A NIGHT ALARM THE CONFERENCE A SELF- 
DENYING MINISTRY APPEAL FOR KANSAS. 

On Wednesday, the lOtli of September, before 
leaving for the seat of the Conference, I preached 
in the chapel at the Mission to the few Indian boys 
and girls who had returned to school, the teachers, 
and a few others. Returning through Westport, 
we reached Kansas Citv, and spent the night, wait- 
ing for a boat. Just before day the Emigrant came 
along: we went aboard, and in the afternoon 
reached Kickapoo. On our arrival, we found the 
place almost deserted. The women and children 
had well-nigh all fled. Most of the men had gone 
to join the army: a dozen or so "abode by the 
stuff." Some two or three troopers lingered about 
the "grocery," seemingly loth to leave its liquid 
attractions. The chance for Conference looked 
forlorn. We were in%-ited and urged to go to 
Weston, in Missouri, but declined, detemiined to 



186 INCIDENTS OP WESTERN TRAVEL. 

avoid tlie very appearance of fear. "With, two or 
three others, I was assigned to the hotel. The 
house was set upon a hill so high, and the ascent 
so steep, that, on reaching it, a man felt that if 
he had to return, he had rather not go do\^Ti. I 
pitied the poor beasts of burden about Kickapoo. 
Yerilj, they have a hard time of it. 

Like all the towns on the Missouri river, Kicka- 
poo is built on hills of very great elevation, and 
the ravines are deep and circuitous. The plan of 
the town covers a considerable area, extending 
from the hills to the prairie; itself, however, 
rolling and broken. 

The only incident worth recording, during my 
stay there, occurred the first night. Retiring 
early, I had slept an hour or two, when I was 
roused by four or five reports of a gun, seemingly 
near a mile distant. Presently the sound of horse- 
hoofs, at full speed, broke upon the ear, and came 
nearer and nearer. I^ow the rider descends the 
long hill in front of the hotel, and now he comes 
up, and pauses at the door. In tones of alarm, and 
as if the emergency were very great, he called up 
some acquaintance, and told, in a subdued voice, 
some startling story. Soon all below stairs were 
up and stirring, and guns were brought out and 
loaded in haste. Then it seemed as if all the men 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 187 

about the place were collecting. I concluded to 
rise and learn the cause of this excitement. Eais- 
ing the window, I heard the horseman tell that 
^ye men attacked him, shot at him five times, one 
ball passing through his hat, grazing his skull, and 
throwing him from his horse; that he rose from 
the ground and recovered his horse, and made 
his escape ; and that, as he fled, he saw at least 
forty men skulking in the thicket. I heard him 
through, and when he repeated his story to some 
new-comer, I observed several important varia- 
tions, and satisfied myself that the whole thing 
was an arrant hoax. I returned to my bed, and 
slept soundly till sunrise. The citizens, however, 
stood by their arms and kept watch all night. 

In the morning it turned out as I expected. 
The hero of the story had fired his own revolver, 
shot his own hat, and played a trick upon the 
sleeping citizens. The people, excited by rumors, 
and harassed by the terror of the times, were 
credulous, and felt that their safety depended upon 
their hostile preparation. Hence this midnight 
alarm opened their eyes, brought out their guns, 
and set them as watchmen upon every hill-top. 
They were the more sensitive, because Lane's men 
had come, a night or tw^o before, Avithin eight 
miles of them, burnt a little village, stolen the 



188 INCIDENTS OP WESTERN TRAVEL. 

horses and cattle, and driven the people out of 
the Territory. The very next day, I think, nine 
families, plundered by these Ishmaelites, passed 
through Eickapoo, seeking rest and security on 
the other side of the river. 

The Conference met at the appointed hour — 
eveiy preacher in his place, save one or two, whose 
location, in the midst of the depredators, com- 
pelled them to remain at home, for the protection 
of their families and their property. In this mis- 
sion Conference, the chief business is the appoint- 
ment of the preachers. Every thing was done 
soberly and in order ; and we eked out the time by 
organizing a Missionary Society, preaching, and a 
general talk on our educational plans and pros- 
pects. On Saturday afternoon we adjourned, in 
peace and love. 

This little band of brethren ought to enlist the 
prayers and sympathies of the whole Church. 
They deserve this, not merely as pioneers who are 
opening a new country for the occupancy of the 
Church, but because these examples of self-denial 
and hardships are of incalculable value in their 
reflex moral influence. To transfer fi^om an old- 
established Conference, permanent society, good 
roads, luxurious entertainment, and all the appli- 
ances of easy living ; to go to a new country, wild 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 189 

and unsettled ; to take long rides in searcli of a 
congregation ; to endure hunger, cold, and naked- 
ness ; to be in perils oft, and fastings long, requires 
a strong faith and unquenchable zeal; almost, if 
not quite, perfect love to God and man. Such 
men contribute largely to the vindication of Chris- 
tianity, as a Divine system ; they pitch the piety 
of the Church upon a higher key, and, amid the 
obliteration of other features and the decay of 
other bonds, still link us on in likeness and fellow- 
ship Avith the apostles of the primitive Church. 
Many preachers, who have neither the manliness 
. nor the piety to do likewise, yet admire these 
Christian heroes, and feel the attractions of their 
example, if not the quickening of a noble emula- 
tion. To hear the brethren pray and preach, to 
see them "happy," one might suppose they were 
ever ready for labor and sacrifice — to leave home, 
friends, all, for the kingdom of heaven's sake. 
But alas for our ignorance of ourselves ! ! the 
delusions that steal upon us, in the guise of 
prudential calculations — "the fondness of a crea- 
ture's love" — the pleadings of nature, interest, 
and common example. The glorious sentiments 
with which these sacred orators ravished us, made 
music on the air and died, singing their own 
requiem : the lofty emotions, which found utter- 



190 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

ance in shouts, and vows, and promises of conse- 
cration, exhausted themselves in the raptures of 
the hour, leaving the Church defrauded of what 
she had the right to expect, and the subjects 
deluded, I fear, in their estimates of their own 
piety. 

One thing at least is certain : it is hard work 
to get men for the foreign field, or for the more 
distant missions in our own country. To say 
nothing now of other regions, Kansas needs at 
least ten i^Teachers to the work, as now organized, 
and ten more might be usefully employed. Where 
are they ? Where ? Wliy, almost anywhere. ISoi 
a few may be found in the crowded Conferences, 
or on the supernumerary list, because they could not 
find work to suit them, or because they had some 
"temporalities" to attend to, or wished to travel 
for pleasure. In other cases, one has gone to his 
farm, another to his merchandise ; many more are 
holding on to some old homestead — working round 
on a few circuits — worn-out in manner and matter, 
while yet they are physically strong — a burden to 
the Conference, a perplexity to the Presiding 
Elders, and a trouble to the Church and the Epis- 
copacy. A great many of the brethren, I appre- 
hend, do not inform themselves of the wants of 
the Church; and if they do, they have been so 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 191 

long accustomed to subordinate Christ's claims to 
their convenience, that they never seem to think 
or feel that these calls for help are providential, 
and addressed to them. 

I need fife young men to-day for regular circuits 
in Kansas. I have looked through four Confer- 
ences to find them, and have talked personally with 
preachers here and there, and cannot get a supply. 
Making all the allowances the case calls for, this 
is rather a reflection upon our pretensions as a 
denomination, l^iere is the spirit of our fathers ? 

I say "young men" are wanted : first, because 
they would cost less to the Missionary Society; 
and secondly, because the inconveniences of the 
country for families are for the present great. 
Married men with small families would not be 
rejected; though we cannot promise them well- 
furnished parsonages, or very comfortable homes. 
Still, this class of men are there; and I heard 
no whinings about hardships. True, the cold is 
extreme, snow abundant, the winter long; but 
men of the world bear these evils for the sake of 
land and ofi^ce. Hundreds and thousands are 
going there to find homes on rich, cheap soil. 
Methodists are among them, and they all need the 
gospel. As preachers, our commission has no 
respect to latitude or climate. The command to 



192 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

" Go" is unqualified; and the Discipline enjoins 
that we go where we are ''needed most." 

Who will go to Kansas ? We want no steel-clad 
warriors, but men with "tongues of fire." We 
want no land-hunters, but strangers and pilgrims, 
who declare plainly that they seek a country, even 
a heavenly. In the name of the Church we will 
give ''bread to eat, raiment to put on," work to do, 
and souls to win. Other expenses may be charged 
to Him who pledges "everlasting life" in the 
world to come. Death will come there as well as 
here ; but I think it is a little nearer to heaven from 
the field of self-denying labor than from the home 
of self-indulging rest. And sure I am, the prairie 
grass will weave sweeter memorials over your 
lonely grave, than all the monuments art can fash- 
ion, or afifection buy. In the city cemetery or the 
country churchyard, human friends may come to 
weep, but about the tombs of the pioneer preacher, 
the angels of God will encamp. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 193 



LETTER XXIII. 

MISTAKES OF THE SOUTH AS TO KANSAS SOLDIER -EMI- 
GRANTS — ABOLITION AGGRESSION SOUTHERN MISTAKES 

A LETTER ON KANSAS AFFAIRS DIFFICULTIES OF 

TRAVELLING IN KANSAS THE WRONG PARTY. 

"Whether the contest in Kansas resulted from 
the desire to occupy the best portions of a rich 
Territory, destined to become a populous State, or 
from a Free-soil mania, or slavery propagandism, 
or from the manoeuvres of political demagogism, 
I shall not undertake to settle. Perhaps all these 
motives met and mingled, and derived much of 
their power to do harm from the rivalries of land 
companies and their speculations. Explain as we 
may the condition of things, last summer and 
autumn it was a reproach to our government and 
people. The policy of the Xorth and the South, 
in sending armed bands, under the pretence of set- 
tlement, was unquestionably wi'ong in its inception 
and objects, and its results have been disastrous. 
It was a movement in conflict with the free opera- 
tion of the principle of the famous Kansas-Ne- 



194 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

hraska Bill, and directly calculated, perliaps in- 
tended, to bring on a sectional conflict. It is 
not mine to sit in judgment on tlie character, 
motives, or management of the leaders, but, as 
migbt liave been expected, tbe large majority of 
tliose wbo vent out under the drilling, drum- 
ming process, were mere adventurers, reckless 
of tbe principles involved, Tritbout interest in tbe 
eountrj or its institutions, and unwortby repre- 
sentatives of tbe res^ion from wbicb tbev came. 
Young, rasb, and often desperate, of course they 
were ready for strife and spoils. Sometimes dis- 
banded for want of funds, or from tbe spirit of 
insubordination, many of tbese soldier eniigranis 
became wandering desperadoes, ^itbout land, or 
bome, or occupation, tbey became a burden upon 
tbe party tbey went out to aid, and a discredit to 
tbe State from wbicb tbey came. Witb sucb ma- 
terials, considering tbe influences at work, it was 
very easy to furnisb bloody stories for the newspa- 
pers, and to make tbe lawless deeds of a few bad 
men evidence against i^ortb or Soutb, as to tbeir 
spirit and intentions. Tbis was, of course, as 
unfair as to make tbe rowdies of a town tbe stand- 
ard forjudging an entire community. 

It^ is, bowever, beyond all controversy tbat the. 
Xortb, in tbeir blind zeal to make Kansas a Fr^e 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 195 

State, provoked all the troubles that followed, by 
picking up and forwarding a population to serve 
their puiposes, and that the Abolitionists were the 
aggressors, by their violence and rebellion, and 
lawless intrusions upon the rights of others : still, 
the South erred in imitating a bad example. She 
ought to have sent citizens, not soldiers ; and to 
have left these Abolition knights to the law, and 
the troops of the General Government. This plan 
would have saved the Territory to the South, and 
a quiet, bond fide emigration might do it yet. Xot 
that I think the climate, soil, and productions 
favorable to slavery ; but it might be recognized in 
her Constitution, when the time for her admission 
as a State shall come ; and there would be slaves 
enough, along with this, to identify Kansas with 
the Southern States, in the councils of the country. 
iN'o physical law bars the institution. It is there^. 
and there it might remain. ^N'evertheless, I think the 
South will lose it, by her own fault rather than by 
the contrivance of her enemies. In confirmation 
of this view, I append a portion of a private letter, 
written in December, from one who resides in 
Kansas, and knows whereof he affirms : 

""We are enjoying peace and quiet now in the 
Territory, and hope it may be permanent. Yet, 



196 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

some think it but tlie deceitful calm preceding the 
fearful earthquake. Governor Geary is evidently a 
man of nerve — rather inclined to obstinacy ; yet, we 
think, the man for the occasion. He has been ac- 
tive in arresting and punishing violators of the law. 
Over one hundred of the marauders have been 
arrested — some tried and acquitted ; others con- 
demned; others have broken custody and fled — I 
suppose to a free State. Twenty -two have been 
sentenced for confinement in the penitentiary; but 
as the Territory is destitute of this important public 
institution, they are confined at Lecompton, at hard 
labor. One was sentenced to six years' confine- 
ment, another to two, and twenty to '^ye years. 
Thus, you see these unfortunate men, seduced by 
Lane and Company, are made to bear the burdens, 
while the guilty authors of the expedition and out- 
rages are permitted to go free, and even lauded as 
patriots and heroes. Since the political excitement 
has ceased, we have been annoyed by another, but 
little less destructive to morals and religion — I 
mean the speculation in land-claims, and particu- 
larly the sales of the ^Delaware Trust Lands.' 
These sales have been progressing some weeks, and 
the end is not yet. The settler has so far been 
permitted to bid ofit" his land at valuation price — 
ranging from $1.25 to §10 per acre. These lands 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 197 

are not subject to preemption. Yet Squatter 
Sovereignty has made 'Uncle Sam' succumb. 
Claims in and around Leavenworth City have been 
sold at heavy rates. Some lands — bleak prairie 
lands — have sold for $200 and some for $250 per 
acre, and the purchaser to risk competition in 
public sale. The lands are all sold at public sale. 
Lots in this place, 24 by 125 feet, range from $150 
to $1500. This city is only a little over two years 
old, and there are now about three thousand 
inhabitants. 

" The political features of our Territory remain 
in statu quo — undecided — various opinions afloat. 
The South has every advantage, but seems slow to 
occupy the ground. The capital invested in the 
Territory is, I think, mostly l^orthern. And what 
Southern capital is here, is principally on the 
rivers, where they can turn it to a heavy per 
centum. And the South, in reference to Kansas, 
seems to have ' curled ' itself up, and concentrated 
itself, morally, politically, and religiously, into 
these words: 'Will it pay?' There has been a 
species of meanness practiced here by Southern 
capitalists which deserves rebuke, and which will 
meet, unless the polic}'- change, a heavy rebuke in 
the loss of Kansas to the South. It is not worth 
while to conceal the matter. "We want "^od bond 



198 IISrCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

fide settlers here — not siich samples as were sent 
here by some from the South, who seemed to put a 
high estimate on themselves because thev were of 
no account, and who, because the citizens here did 
not put a high estimate on such capital, left in a 
rage. The South has good men ; and these we 
want, or none. The capitalists of the South seem 
desirous that the young men bred in the school of 
adversity should settle the country, improve the soil, 
drive back the wolves, and fight the battles, while 
they enjoy the ease and luxury of their Southern 
homes. Most of the toil and burden, thus far, has 
been borne by poor young men — men who are not 
personally interested in Southern property, and 
whose pecuniary inte -est would suffer nothing by 
the Xorth obtainin/ ; ascendency here ; yet they 
have engaged in the w^ork from principle, believing 
the country requires sacrifices at their hands. 
These they have cheerfully made. The days of 
this burden-bearing are well-nigh numbered, un- 
less men of capital and means pursue a different 
course. I am a Southern man politically. I love 
the South — believe she is right, religiously and 
politically, at home ; but she is certainly derelict 
in reference to Kansas. 

' "As a Church — the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, in this country, in the affections and confi- 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. ll>0 

dence of the community, has the vantage-ground ; 
but, in reference to number of preachers, the 
aSTorthern Church has the advantage of us, consid- 
erably. We stand, as to numbers, as vre were at 
the formation : two transferred from us, and one 
superannuated, and three transferred to us. We 
have anxiously looked for transfers, but in vain. 
"We need them — we must have them, or give up 
the field. If we are to die, give us a decent burial, 
and keep us not unsepultured. The preachers 
that are here, came here at the call of the Church ; 
and here they are willing to stay, provided they 
can have the numbers to supply the increasing 
demand. You may think me a little obtrusive ; I 
hope you will pardon me. I don't know as much 
as a Bishop, but I have seen more of Kansas than, 
probably, most of them. I believe this country 
ought to be saved to the South. I believe, if this 
is made a Slave State, we shall have peace and 
quiet, with law-abiding citizens : otherwise, confu- 
sion and disorder, Avith a law-defying community." 

I did not travel in the Territory much, for lack 
of time, and because it was not safe to do so. The 
hazard of life was not great, but the liability to 
loss of horse was imminent, almost anywhere. 
They did not steal horses, they only ''•pressed them ;" 



200 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

that is, being interpreted, they took them without 
leave and against your will. The patriots having 
gone at the call of their country, in a great crisis, 
of course, concluded they were entitled to forage 
on friend and foe. As it is more pleasant, com- 
monly, to ride than walk, they pressed horses, in 
stall and on the road. I saw many families who 
had been robbed, burnt out, and diiven off. This 
was the work of the Abolitionists — Lane and his 
men. The Missourians and the pro-slavery men 
were preparing for vengeance, and were resolved 
on such a chastisement of these freebooters as 
should result in their expulsion or extermination. 
Governor Geary's arrival was timely — most oppor- 
tune. War — not skirmishing — was at hand, and 
blood would have flowed like water. The pro- 
slavery men — the "Border Ruffians" — demon- 
strated their love of law and order, their indisposi- 
tion to go beyond self-protection, by quietly dis- 
persing at the command of legitimate authority, 
and leaving the punishment of the evil-doers to 
the powers that be ; while the men who embodied 
and represented Northern sentiment — the Beecher 
Sharpens Hifle Tribe — determined carrying out their 
own nefarious plans, rather than submit to law, 
public opinion, and popular sufirage ; and finding 
that a just and firm administration was about to 



INCIDENTS OP WESTERN TRAVEL. 201 

be inaugurated, fled, carrying witli them the spoils 
of their guerilla warfare. 

These facts explain the troubles in Kansas, show 
the temper and designs of the parties, and confute 
for ever all the partisan misrepresentations of the 
Korthern press. Their flight was confession, and 
confession proved their previous h^-pocrisy — their 
treasonable betrayal of the peace of the country. 
K ever the secret history of this *' Kansas war" 
should be written, it will appear that the South, so 
for from attempting to cheat the I^orth, either by 
fraud or force, has been either careless of her own 
interest, or has confided too much in the justice of 
her enemies. It is not the first time in the pro- 
gress of the world that the icronged have been 
charged with the crimes of those who betrayed 
them, nor that the offending party have sought the 
s}T3ipathy of mankind for persecutions they never 
endured, but only inflicted. Such is life, and man, 
and history. 




9* 



1102 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTER XXIV. 

WESTON— CHINESE SUGAR-CANE — GROWTH OF THE WEST— 
WELL-MOUNTED PREACHERS TAKING IN NEW APPOINT- 
MENTS RICH COUNTRY FRAUDS ON THE GOVERNMENT 

GLASGOW, FAYETTE, PARIS, 3IEXIC0 MODERN CONFUSION 

OF TONGUES CONFERENCE AT LOUISIANA. 

Having concluded the Conference, we crossed 
the river to Weston, intending there to spend the 
Sabbath, "^^e found comfortable quarters with the 
Rev. Wm. G. Caples, one of the preachers of the 
Missouri Conference. 

In his garden, I saw the now famous Chinese 
sugar-cane. If it will grow elsewhere as in that 
place, I do not wonder at its rapidly spreading 
reputation. I think the stalks were fullj seven- 
teen feet in height. The field of corn, however, 
by its size attested great depth and richness of soil 
— a soil seldom found, save in the Platte Country 
of Missouri. 

Unless I were very familiar with the localities, I 
should not like to walk about Weston at night. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 203 

Such hills, ravines, gullies, precipices, surely never 
before were found in the corporate limits of a 
town. As you move along the streets, the houses 
look as if they were peeping down from their slip- 
pery altitudes upon the transactions of the lower 
world, and one, unused to see human habitations 
so exalted, feels almost afraid that, in their curi- 
osity, they will lean a little too far and come down 
with a crash. Vast sums are annually expended 
in repairing the streets and keeping up bridges ; 
and very often, when the work is finished, the next 
rain sweeps thousands away, and the repairers of 
breaches are called upon for new plans and fresh 
labors. Despite physical incongruities, the place 
prospers. The people are intelligent, enterprising, 
and well to do in the world. There is here a High 
School connected with the Conference, and well 
patronized. 

In the "\Vest the common impression of its future 
greatness is embodied in the names prophetic of 
future development, I suppose, for they are cer- 
tainly not justified by present appearances. Most 
of the little villages, albeit there is nothing to 
mark them, save a wooden warehouse and a few 
small houses round about, are dignified with the 
title ''City." We have along the river above 
Independence, Kansas City — Delaware City — ^Lea- 



204 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

venwortli City — Platte City. The name, perhaps, 
helps the sale of lots, attracts population, and may 
he a trick of speculators — a plan to raise stocks, 
yet I can hut regard it as one of the signs of 
what all regard as the "manifest destiny" of the 
countiy. ]N^or is this idea a figment of fancy. 
A few years ago, and Fort Independence was the 
extreme verge of American civilization, and we 
were accustomed to regard a man who had heen 
there as a hold adventurer. All beyond was wil- 
derness, the range of wild beasts and savage men; 
l^ow some one reports that Eoii; Laramie, four 
hundred miles beyond Leavenworth, is the geogra- 
jphical centre of the United States and Territories. 
The trade from Leavenworth to Santa Fe is im- 
mense. One man, I learned, has twelve thousand 
Qxen on the line, and, in the transport of merchan- 
dise and military stores, finds use for them all. 
The tide of population stills rolls on, and, if life 
endures, I expect to hold Conference in Santa Fe, 
and to ride on a railroad where the trail of the 
buffalo is now to be seen. Let the Americans 
push on, subdue the earth, and replenish it. 

In the mean time, I must pursue my travels. 
Tuesday morning, the 16th of September, we left 
Weston for the seat of the Missouri Conference. 
Brother Caples had the kindness to take us in his 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 205 

buggy, witli a pair of horses just sucli as a travel- 
ling preacher ought to have. Indeed, I found him 
so well fitted for getting about, that I appointed 
him an agent for Central College. It is due to 
him to say that he had other and peculiar qualifica- 
tions, besides his equipage. I love, however, to 
see the brethren well mounted. To itinerate is 
their business, and they ought to fix for it. I 
mean no reflection, but simply to state a fact : 
those preachers do best generally, who have little 
beside their ''travelling apparatus." "Wealth is a 
fearful snare to a minister of the gospel. It is a 
miasm, out of which comes a host of diseases. 
Strong men grow delicate, young ones superannuate, 
single ones need nurses, and married ones become 
too affectionate to leave home. Still, let the 
preacher have a good horse — if need be, a pair — 
and, if it suit him best to ride on wheels, a car- 
riage of some sort. Then air, exercise, and diet 
for his body, reading, praying, preaching for his 
soul, and he is likely to become — an "acceptable" 
preacher. 

We passed through a very broken and fertile 
country duriiig the first day's ride. Xever before 
did I see a region where the hill-tops were as 
rich as the valleys. We reached Brother Sollot's 
about sundown, and met a hearty welcome and 



206 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL, 

clieerful entertainment. ^ext day we passed 
tlirough Liberty, a thriving town, and in the even- 
ing reached Richmond just as a furious storm of 
wind, hail, and rain came on. A hospitable roof 
furnished us a safe retreat from its pitiless peltings. 
The darkness and rain prevented preaching. On 
the following day, we set out earl}^, with the hope of 
reaching Brunswick by dark. We rode well-nigh 
all day through a very rich prairie region, and saw 
large farms well cultivated. We dined with a Mr. 
Turner, and found him and his family very anxious 
for a preacher to be sent to their neighborhood : 
promised to send one, if possible. How many 
places, just outside of the regular circuits, might 
be taken in and regularly served, if we had the 
spirit of our fathers ! In the old Conferences as 
well as in the new, there is many a waste place, 
where souls are left to perish, just because the 
preacher lacks zeal to add one more appointment to 
his large work of four or five. This fact demands 
the rigid scrutiny of the Church. There is a fear- 
ful wrong somewhere. 

In the afternoon we passed through one of the 
finest ]3rairies I have ever seen, an^l through its 
bosom there rolled a limpid stream in quiet beauty. 
The green banks and the crystal waters were 
lovely to the eye, and, while they give a charm to 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 20T 

the scenery, are in feet a neigliborliood conven- 
ience. This stream is of considerable depth, is 
fed by never-failing springs, abounds in fish, and, 
doubtless, is the summer resort of all the fashionable 
cattle in that region. It may be that humbler stock 
seek refreshment from its bright waters. 

As the evening shades came on, we found, on 
inquiry, that we had missed our way ; so, turning 
round, we sought a resting-place, lest night should 
catch us wandering about, not knowing whither we 
went. We found a farm-house shortly ; and when 
the proprietor came out on our call, he recognized 
Brother Caples, and bade us welcome. Our host 
and family were Methodists, and seemed to regard 
our misfortune in losing the way as a favor of 
Providence to them. 

In passing through this portion of Missouri, the 
traveller occasionally sees a shanty without an 
inhabitant, and in other places a pile of lumber 
and an acre or two of ploughed ground. What do 
these signs signify? They mean, in my opinion, 
an egregious trifling with conscience and the law 
of the land. Under the "Graduation Bill," these 
lands are in market to settlers^ at a hit (twelve and a 
half cents) an acre. Some men put up these rude 
huts, plough a little, sleep on the premises a few 
nights, and then swear that they are in possession ; 



208 IXCIBENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

and thus get land wortti ^ftj dollars at a bit per 
acre. In this way the Government is bit, con- 
science is bit, truth is bit. The first may survive 
the wound : how the other two will fare, the future 
will declare. The American passion for land needs 
restraint, or at least regulation. 

On our route we passed several villages, strug- 
gling up into the dignity of towns. My appoint- 
ments compelled me to hasten. I was set down to 
preach at Glasgow on Friday night, and to dedicate 
a church at Fayette on Sunday. TTe reached hoth 
in due time, and delivered our testimony with 
some comfort, and I trust to profit. 

About these towns has cons^reffated no little 
wealth and intelligence. At Fayette the two Con- 
ferences (Missouri and St. Louis) have located a 
college : indeed, two colleges — a male and a female 
institution — supply the citizens with the means of 
education. I trust the arrangements made during 
the session of the Conferences will succeed in 
establishing Central College permanently, and 
securing funds for its further efiiciency. 

Monday morning, the 22d of Septem'ber, found 
me one hundred and twenty miles from Louisiana, 
the seat of the Conference, which was to meet on 
Wednesday morning. But, thanks to Brother Ca- 
ples and his noble team, on Tuesday at sunset we 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 209 

completed the journey. Monday night we spent 
in Mexico, a new town which has sprung up on the 
line of the Hannibal and St. Joseph's Railroad. 
It was dark when we arrived, but the bell was 
rung, the people met, and I tried to preach. 

The people of Missouri, like the people of other 
States, seem terribly afflicted with barrenness of 
invention, in naming their cities and towns. This 
is an American weakness, this mimicking of Europe 
and imitation of one another. It makes geogra- 
phy an enigma to beginners, and compels a man, 
in talking, to as much particularity, if he would be 
understood, as you commonly find in a legal docu- 
ment. If I say I preached in Glasgow, in Paris, 
in Mexico, and say no more, who will understand 
me? Some Babel Tower has certainly fallen 
among us : the confusion is great, and increasing. 

I found pleasant lodgings with Brother Draper 
in Louisiana — not the State, but a nice town in 
Missouri, on the Mississippi river. The Confer- 
ence session was a session of grace. Souls were 
converted, business was done in a devotional spirit, 
and the impression in behalf of our Church inter- 
ests was fine. The preachers are deeply religious. 
I formed friendships there, delightful to memory. 



210 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL, 



LETTER XXV. 

TO THE ST. LOUIS CONFERENCE — THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI 
STATE FAIRS — ST. LOUIS CHARLESTON — THE CONFER- 
ENCE WHERE CONFERENCES SHOULD BE HELD TO 

CAIRO CROSSING THE OHIO RIVER TO JACKSON 

MEMPHIS CONFERENCE. 

The St. Louis Conference conies next in order. 
We left Louisiana at niglit in the steamer Keokuk 
— a noble boat, witli a generous captain. The 
crowd was great, and no small fraction of the 
Conference took passage, adding to the squeeze. 
Berths and beds were appropriated, and I had 
made up my mind to nod through the night, when 
the Captain politely offered and urged me to take 
his cabin on the upper deck. I accepted the ten- 
der, and found, as I have often done, that the very 
things which seemed to be against me turned out 
to my advantage. Instead of a narrow cabin and a 
narrower berth, I had a room and a bed. This upper 
department the steamboat men (I know not why) 
call Texas. It is a figurative application of the 
name, and contains a compliment to Texas proper. 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 211 

Soon after midnight the fog became so dense 
that we had to lie by till nine o'clock the next 
morning. The upper Mississippi is clear, deep, 
beautiful, wholly unlike itself after its junction 
with the turbid Missouri. 

When we reached Alton, many of the passen- 
orers went ashore to attend the State Fair in Illi- 
nois. The mornings, I learned, were devoted to 
the exhibition, and the afternoons to political ha- 
rangues. The multitude in motion for the Fair 
grouuds was a living current. The great attrac- 
tion was an expected speech from Senator Douglas. 

In due season we reached St. Louis, where we 
proposed to rest a day and spend a Sabbath. Here 
too the Fair was coming on the following week. 
The preparations for it were upon a magnificent 
scale. The grounds and buildings cost upwards 
of one hundred thousand dollars, I heard. The 
amphitheatre was a model arrangement for such 
an exhibition. The Eev. E. A. Young, who ac- 
companied me on this visit, and who was familiar 
with all the localities of the city, took me around, 
and cheered my progress ^^^th narratives, anec- 
dotes, and brilliant calculations of the future of 
this great city. 

I preached at First Church next morning, and at 
Centenary at night. Methodism is growing in St. 



212 IXCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

Louis, but there is room for indefinite expansion. 
The Church ought to keep in this place a strong, 
effective force, and to expend largely of her mis- 
sionary treasures in canying the gospel to the poor 
and the outcast. "Without such aid, the policy 
of well-nigh all denominations, in building fine 
houses of worship with rented seats, will leave the 
poor without the gospel. Might not our city 
preachers do much by preaching one or more 
nights in the week in private houses or rented 
rooms, to those who seldom or never enter our regu- 
lar churches? Five sermons a week is not very 
hard work for a sound man. I have read of one of 
our American fathers who preached fourteen times 
during Ms rest-week. The above query is addressed 
to all whom it may concern. 

On Monday, with some forty preachers, we left 
on the steamboat Editor for Charleston, the seat of 
the St. Louis Conference. "We reached Lane's 
Landing, where we were to disembark, early in 
the day, and found every variety of vehicle in 
waiting to convey us some fifteen miles to the vil- 
lage. The dust was deep and light ; an impalpa- 
ble, but, as we found before we finished our jour- 
ney, not an imponderable powder. TTith five or 
six others, I was assigned to Judge Handy 's — a 
good preacher's home. We had a pleasant ses- 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 213 

sion, but were greatly hindered in public services 
by the weather. The town is in a flat prairie — 
deep, rich soil. As I have said, the dust was ter- 
rible for two or three days, and then came the rain, 
and we literally waded in water. Still, the kind- 
ness of the people, their deep interest in all our 
proceedings, the marked impression of our anni- 
versaries, preaching, and ordinations, overbalanced 
all our inconveniences. By the way, I am tho- 
roughly persuaded that it is good policy to carry 
our Conferences to out-of-ihe-icay ^p?ace5. The in- 
convenience is a trifle compared with the good 
accomplished. The more the people, insiders and 
outsiders, see of Methodism as a system of practi- 
cal working, the better they will like it. An 
Annual Conference will impress any mind with 
the grandeur of our plans and the energy of 
our operations, with the Christian fidelity of the 
preachers, their self-denial, their zeal, and the 
rigid scrutiny to which every interest is subjected. 
And then the ministrations of so many minds, to 
a people unused to variety and change, can but 
give an impulse to thought, emotion, and plan. In 
the cities, the great thoroughfares of commerce 
and travel, where everybody and every thing goes, 
we come and go, and hardly leave a trace behind. 
Let the Conferences go where they will do most 



214 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

good, without regard to railroads, rivers, or dis- 
tance ; open the doors, and let the people come in, 
and see and hear for themselves, and they will 
understand our economy better, cooperate with us 
more cheerfully and liberally, and be furnished, 
from personal knowledge, with satisfactory an- 
swers to all tirades against Methodism, whether 
from the press or the pulpit, books or men. Such 
is my conviction, observation, and experience. 

On "Wednesday morning, the 14th of October, 
Conference having adjourned the night previous, 
we took up the line of march for Ohio City, oppo- 
site Cairo. Buggies, barouches, wagons, horses 
and mules were in great demand, and there was no 
little of the ludicrous in the appearance of our 
company when fairly under way. Wit and humor 
beguiled the trip of its weariness, and turned the 
jolts and discomforts of the journey into amuse- 
ments rather than complaints. By some mishap, 
we landed at the river a mile or two above the regu- 
lar ferry, and our only chance to cross was in two 
little skiffs, where the river was a mile wide. It 
looked like very adventurous navigation. We had 
to go over by instalments of five or six at a time. 
Withal, we had to foot it up the stream for half a 
mile, to find a point in the banks sufficiently 
inclined to allow any thing like a grave and 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 215 

decent descent to the water's edge. When my 
time arrived, I found I had for my companions the 
Publishing House, in the person of F. A. Owen ; 
the St. Louis Advocate, D. R. McAnally and wife ; 
the Presiding Eklership of the St. Louis District, 
R. A. Young; and a Doctor of Divinity, C. B. 
Parsons ; and Young America, my namesake 
George. Xow, this was a serious cargo for two 
skiifs of the smallest kind, and both to be rowed 
by one man. Brother Owen weighs two hundred 
and twenty. Brother McAnally two hundred and 
twenty -five, Brother Parsons two hundred and 
thirty ; the heft of Brother Young is not great, but 
his altitude enables him to look doicn upon most 
terrestrial things. The rest of us were neither 
verv long nor very heavy, but we felt that we had 
as much of real value at stake as the biggest or 
the longest. Sundry pieces of baggage were also 
thrown in, and when we were all set, there was no 
gunwale to brag of. But we reached the shore in 
safety, and felt thankful for our deliverance. 

"Each pleasure hath its poison too." We were 
off the water, but on the softest, most yielding 
sand-bed I ever saw. It was a mile and a half to 
Cairo, and, afraid to leave my trunk, lest it should 
be missing when a boat came along, I undertook 
with George's help to carry it. He soon broke 



216 IXCIDElsTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

down. Brotlior Owen came to my aid, and still 
our progress was slow and painful. Brother 
McAnally overtook us, and, laugliing at our dis- 
tress, seized the trunk and laid it upon his shoul- 
der. I politely rebelled against this expensive 
kindness, but he walked the faster, and made light 
of such a burden. Presently, a cart came to the 
rescue, and I privately thought that Brother 
McAnally, despite his strength and kindness, sym- 
pathized with me in my joy at its arrival. I was 
certainly glad, for my sense of obligation was 
growing heavier than my trunk. 

Cairo grows finely, and must be a place in time 
to come. A fine hotel adds to its attractions. We 
had to tarry till morning, waiting for a boat. The 
river was low, and the time of running very irregu- 
lar, so we took the first boat that came along. 
Having a day or two to spare, I had resolved to 
accompany Brother Owen to the Memphis Confer- 
ence at Jackson. "We did not reach the city of 
Memphis till Sunday noon, and concluded to lie 
over till Monday. I preached twice on Sabbath. 
We left next day for Jackson, and on our arrival 
found that Conference would adjourn early next 
morning. So we had travelled a hundred miles 
and more just to shake Bishop Early by the hand, 
take a look at the Conference, and turn round and 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



217 



go back. I remained and tried to preacli at night ; 
next day returned to Memphis, and left on the fol- 
lowing day for Batesville, the seat of the Arkansas 
Conference. 




218 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTER XXYI. 

WHITE RIVER JACKSONPORT BREAKFAST TO BATES- 

VILLE THE CONFERENCE — TO PRINCETON — TRAVELLING 

IN THE '-trick" THE FIRST NIGHT OUT AND THE 

CATS. 

White Kiver is certainly one of the most beau- 
tiful streams in all the country. Along its course 
there is none of the wild grandeur of the Hudson 
or the Tennessee, but its clear, deep, flowing 
waters, its cane-covered banks, its graceful curves, 
the fertile lands on either side, all conspire to 
make a trip upon its bosom very pleasant. The 
channel is narrow, but uniform, and it is navigable, 
the year round, as high as Jacksonport. In high 
water, boats ascend five hundred miles above. 
Very much of the country along this stream is 
yet unoccupied, save by hunters. We saw their 
cabins, and occasionally got a glimpse of these 
American Mmrods. The noise of the boat will 
bring them out of their green retreats, sometimes 
to sell their game, and sometimes to refresh their 
eyes with the sight of a human face. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTEKN TRAVEL. 2l9 

We reached Jacksonport about the dawn of day, 
and went ashore. lu the hotel we found a drink- 
ing, swearing, rowdy crowd. The passengers from 
the boat at that early hour must have taken the 
establishment by surprise, or else the superintend- 
ent is a bad judge of the rule of proportion. At 
any rate, the company oversized the supply upon 
the breakfast-table. My portion was a half cup of 
coffee, so called, and one small potato. George, I 
believe, managed to get two potatoes, but missed 
the coffee — by no means an intolerable depriva- 
tion. 

On going out to hunt a conveyance, I met sev- 
eral of the preachers, all on their way to Confer- 
ence. It proved to be one of the days of the tri- 
weekly hack, so I engaged our passage. THien all 
was ready, we found eight passengers ; and the 
utmost capacity of the coach would not admit 
more than jive. Being the last who had spoken for 
a seat, I considered myself anchored for that day. 
I asked the driver who had precedence. He 
replied, "Those who get in first: that's the rule 
in this country." Four of us were in in a t^-ink- 
ling; and, with a bad road ahead, the driver 
declined to take any more. 

Along the route of thirty miles to Batesville, we 
passed through a section of country which, be- 



220 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

cause of its great fertility, is called " Oil-trough 
Bottom." If oil be the type of richness, then is 
the bottom rightly named. But, despite the soil, 
the drought cut short the crop. The clouds must 
di'op their fatness upon the earth, if any land make 
much of what the farmers call "truck." 

'We reached Batesville in the afternoon, and 
found pleasant lodgings with Judge Xeely. The 
Conference session was pleasant and profitable. I 
was very glad to find a very decided improvement 
in all the financial interests of the Church, and a 
braver and more hopeful spirit among the preach- 
ers. They are waking up to their responsibilities, 
and are beginning to appreciate the fact that they 
are capable, by the blessing of Heaven, of improv- 
ing the Church and the country. They have a 
large field, hard work, many trials ; but they are 
doing good, and the time is not distant when ''the 
little one shall become a strong nation." 

From this point to Princeton, I was to have for 
my travelling - companions Brothers Owen and 
"Watson. As there were but four of us, we were 
anxious to go in the same vehicle, and deputed 
Brother Watson to make the necessary arrange- 
ments. He soon reported that a contract was 
made wdth the stas^e which runs tri-weeklv to 
Little E-ock, and which was to leave Tuesday, 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 221 

(next morning,) at eight o'clock. So we lay down 
and slept, well satisfied with the prospect before 
us. While at breakfast, the driver hailed us, and 
out we went, bag and baggage. 

A glance at the vehicle satisfied me that the day 
of trouble had come. ''Why, Watson, is this 
your stage ? We cannot get in it, much less go in 
it." "It is not what I expected, certainly; but I 
guess we can get in." We proceeded to put in our 
trunks, and the fact was plain that there was no 
room for the owners. The stage was a carriage of 
the sort that is known in different places by differ- 
ent names. By some it is called '' Jersey wagon ;" 
by others, " peddler's wagon," " dearborn," " whim- 
my-diddle," "go-cart;" but I concluded that the 
inventive genius of Arkansas had hit the thino- 
exactly, when I learned that it was commonly 
called '' trick:' That is the right name, whether 
we consider its size, its shape, or its business. To 
put such a thing on the stage line, as a public con- 
venience or conveyance, is most certainly a trick 

an outrageous, intolerable trick. And then this 
trick was one of the poorest tricks. Old, shack- 
ling, ready to fall to pieces, it looked unsafe to sit 
in it when it was standing still. To cross moun- 
tains with it was a daring adventure. 
After due search for some other trick, we found 



222 IXCIDEKTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

that this was our only chance, and we submitted 
to our fate. It was at last determined to take out 
the hind seat, and for two to sit on our trunks. 
This being done, Brother Watson and I entered, 
and found, to our dismay, that we could not sit 
upright with our hats on. It was a damp, cold, 
windy day ; the curtains were, some gone, the rest 
torn ; and as we had already bent our wills to our 
circumstances, so now we hared our brows to the 
•storm. But hold — we are not all in yet. Young 
America must not be left behind. The Publishing 
House has business at Princeton, and both must 
be provided for. The driver and the mails too — 
they must go. Here was a problem. The trick 
was already full, and all these to come in. TVTiat 
shall we do ? I will tell how we did. The mail- 
bags were put in fi'ont, or rather in one corner, on 
the driver's side ; and when he took his seat, his 
feet were nearly as high as his head. He was a 
mathematical fio^ure which remains to be defined 
in some future work on Conic Sections. I strad- 
dled my trunk, and took in George between my 
knees, as though I were on a pony, with the 
stirrups too short and my little son in front. 
Brother "Watson arranged his valise on my left, 
and squeezed himself into that corner, and then 
neither of us could move without the consent of 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 223 

the other. Brother Owen was still upon his feet, 
and looked as if he were meditating some despe- 
rate deed. When the word was given, with a 
groan, prophetic of suffering, he proceeded to take 
the last little vacancy ; and when he settled him- 
self, the trick groaned from top to tire. All aboard, 
the body rested upon the axles ; and so the absence 
of springs fixed us right for the hardest kind of 
jolting. Confidently expecting a break-down, we 
rolled off. Riding bareheaded for a mile or more,-* 
I found myself taking a violent cold, and con- 
cluded to try another experiment. I tied my 
handkerchief around my head, Indian fashion, 
and drew my blanket over it ; and the exhibition I 
made raised such a laugh, that pain and trouble 
were lost in merriment. Brother Owen would 
turn round as well as he could, and a glimpse 
would last him a mile. He declared he meant to 
have my picture for the Home Circle. IS^oi able to 
sit erect, I looked, in my outre ^'fixins," like a 
monk with his shaven pate and cowl stealing to 
his cell ; or a half-frozen Indian seekino* refu2:e 
from the wintry blast; or the old Sheik Houssein. 
Ibn Egid, of Wady Mousa, (minus the beard,) 
who appears in the last number of Harper's Maga- 
zine. 

A few days of my life's travel are memorable to 



224 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

me. The day we left Batesville is one of them. Road 
rough, broken, even mountainous ; cribbed so close 
together in that little tricky that we had to get out 
every few miles to straighten and rest our aching 
joints, nothing earthly could have made it tole- 
rable, save good cheerful companionship. The 
physical discomforts of the ride were numerous; 
yet we enjoyed ourselves, and all, doubtless, re- 
member it only as one of the rough incidents of 
"itinerant life. 

A little after dark we reached our stopping- 
place. The trick does not run at night. At sup- 
per the hostess handed a cup of coffee to one of 
the company: he passed it on until it reached 
George, who set it down by his plate, saying he 
expected it was too sweet for me. The lady re- 
plied, " she reckoned not, for she had no sugar, 
nor could she get any for love or money." When 
the hour of retirement came round. Brothers Owen 
and "Watson were each directed to a small room 
adjoining the one in which we were sitting, while 
George and I were to take the bed in the corner. 
Some young men who belonged to the establish- 
ment, and .two trick -drivers who had met there 
that night, remained by the fire to tell tales and 
laugh. I found it impossible to sleep, and had to 
ask them to adjourn. Rid of them, I composed 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 225 

myself to rest. But, alas I " the best-laicl schemes 
of mice and men gang aft aglee," I had been 
asleep an hour or two, when I was roused by the 
mewing of a cat. Presently in came another, 
responding in a louder and sharper key, and 
another, and another, until six or seven had mus- 
tered. It proved to be a riotous assembly — in fact, 
hostile, belligerent. Whether parties were as nu- 
merous as cats, it was too dark for me to deter- 
mine. Whether the border ruffians had intruded 
upon the squatter sovereigns, or some old settler 
was defending his preemj^tion nght from the invasion 
of speculators, or the new-comers were wrangling 
over a claim, I will not undertake to say ; but there 
was a general row, fierce and formidable. I rose 
in my bed and commanded the peace — insisted 
upon law and order. But the squalling drowned 
my voice, or passion defied my interference. One 
of the heroes of the fight tried to whet his claws 
for keener rapine by scratching the walls. This 
waked George — who, (amid "the noise and confu- 
sion" he could not judge well of localities,) sup- 
posing the cats had invaded the bed, commenced a 
vigorous kicking and crying — 'Scat He would 
have won the field if these intruders had been near 
him. After duly weighing the peril of the experi- 
ment, I reached down, seized one of mv boots, 
10* 



226 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 



rushed upon the feline Trarriors, and brought on a 
general stampede. I kindled a fire, and, finding 
the enemy had decamped, closed the door, and 
once more retired. Soon the hogs under the 
house renewed our troubles ; but we had made up 
our minds to sleep, and we did sleep. 



^^-^h 




INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 227 



LETTER XXVII. 

OUT OF THE ^' trick" PREACHING AT SEARCY FACE OF 

THE COUNTRY HICKORY PLAINS RED OAK LITTLE 

ROCK TULIP ARRESTED ON THE ROAD PRINCETON 

THE CONFERENCE — IN ANOTHER " TRICK" THE STEAMER 

FOX — NAPOLEON. 

The stage from Little Rock liaving met us, and 
being rather more commodious, we prevailed upon 
the di'ivers to exchange. Soon after leaving in the 
morning, we saw several deer leaping through the 
woods. George was delighted, as they were the 
first he had ever seen. 

At Searcy, I had an appointment to preach ; and 
Brother McCoy having promised to take me on to 
Little Rock, I parted with my travelling-compan- 
ions. The congregation was good, and the service, 
I trust, profitable. One brother at least was con- 
victed, and proved that the Word was '' a discerner 
of the thoughts and intents of the heart." I was 
preaching on the causes which defeat our prayers, 
and among others mentioned the indulgence of ba J 



228 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

tempers. I gave several illustrations. After ser- 
vice I went home witli Brother M., and one of my 
hearers came over to see me in the afternoon. 
In the conrse of conversation, he said, "Did you 
ever hear about my killing that mule ?" '"Xo, sir. 
"Why do you ask such a question?" "Because he 
haunted me mightily, vrhile you were preaching to- 
day." He then proceeded to relate how, in a fit 
of passion, he had shot a mischievous mule, and 
his mortification and shame, when the excitement 
of the moment had passed. 

The land in this portion of Arkansas is not rich, 
but I suppose, with good cultivation, quite produc- 
tive. Wild pigeons, in fabulous numbers, visit 
this region ; and in some places, known as pigeon- 
roosts, acres of forest have been destroyed by 
them. The people kill them at night by the 
thousand. 

ISTot very far back in the past, this must have 
been a prairie region, for the forest trees are young 
— of comparatively recent growth — and generally 
just about the right size for first-rate firewood. It 
is an inviting country, healthy, easy to clear, pro- 
ductive, land cheap, and game abundant. As the 
traveller pursues his way, he is struck with the 
frequent recurrence of those signs which mark the 
progress of hurricanes. They levelled the woods in 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 229 

their fury, but seem to liave been local — never of 
any very great extent, but most fearful in their 
desolation. 

I reached Hickory Plains in the afternoon of 
Thursday, the 6th of Xovember; preached at 
night, formed several veiy pleasant acquaintances, 
and next day preached at Eed Oak: dined with 
Brother Adams, and, through rain and mud, set 
out once more for Little Rock. About four 
o'clock a furious storm came on, and we were glad 
to find a shelter eleven miles short of our destina- 
tion. The next day was bitterly cold, and the 
mud several inches deeper than before. We made 
slow progress toward the capital, and on reaching 
the ferry, opposite the city, found, as usual at such 
places in the TTest, a perfect caravan of emigrant 
wagons. The old mill -rule — ''First come, first 
ser%'ed," is the law of ferries also ; and accordingly 
it was long, long before our turn came. The river 
was swollen, the current strong, the boat a very 
slow craft, and, of course, our delivery on the 
other bank a tardy result. 

At Little Rock we were to lie over till Monday. 
Brother AV^ingfield had arranged for preaching at 
night and on the Sabbath. I found comfortable 
lodging with Brother Bertrand, and devoted the 
afternoon to repose. The city is beautifully lo- 



<)^ 



230 INCIDENTS OF WE STERN ' TRAVEL . 

cated, lias some fine buildings, and, when the 
country is more settled, and the projected railroads 
are finished, will doubtless grow into considerable 
importance as an inland town. 

Brothers "Watson, Owen, and I, hired a carriage 
to carry us to Princeton. "We travelled over a 
poor country, but pleasant company and freedom 
from accidents made the journey agreeable. We 
expected to reach Princeton on Tuesday night, but 
on approaching Tulip — a little running village — in 
a long lane ahead of us we saw quite a company of 
men and women; and as we drew nigh, a man 
stepped out, ordered us to stop, said the road was 
barricaded with ladies, and that we could go no 
farther. By the time he had delivered his speech, 
he had reached the carriage, opened the door, and 
ordered us out. I replied to him, 

^'"We must go on. Conference opens in the 
morning, and I must be there." 

^'I'U have you there before the people have done 
their breakfast. Get out, get out ! " 

Brother Owen remarked, " That is Willis Sum- 
merville: I know him of old. You will have to 
stop." 

''My good brother," said I, "I have not heard 
from home for weeks — expect letters, and must go 
on to-night." 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 231 

"N"o, you won't, I tell you. Brother Moore, 
where are the letters ? Give thera to him : take 
away his last excuse. Q-et out, every one of you. 
Boy, turn them horses round : drive in at that gate. 
"No preacher or bishop ever passed me yet. Bishop 
Andrew stayed here once, and you are no better 
than he. Besides, some of you will have to 
preach here to-night: the appointment is already 
made. Get out. Come, out with you!" — and so 
we were taken captive, and our imprisonment 
proved a very pleasant affair. True to his promise, 
Brother Summerville had us up before day, and we 
were in Princeton, eight miles off, long before nine 
o'clock. 

Princeton is a small town containing clever 
people, and several brethren of the neighborhood 
moved in and occupied vacant houses — camp- 
meeting style — to entertain the preachers, and 
enjoy the services of the Conference. We had a 
pleasant time, a harmonious session, interesting 
anniversaries, and we parted in peace and love. 
The Conference — the Wachita — is rapidly develop- 
ing. It is in a very inviting region to those who 
would like a new and promising field of labor. 

Once more we hired a hack — or, more appro- 
priately, a "trick" — to take us to Pine Bluff. 
Crammed in a narrow, rickety, topless conc-em, 



232 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

with, a team whose speed by extra appliances was 
three miles per hour, on a cold, bleak, jN'ovember 
day, over a rooty road, we were glad to take up 
early in the evening at Dr. Ehodes's — a South 
Carolina Methodist, who has wandered to the 
West. 

^ext evening, we reached Pine Bluff, settled 
with our driver, and took lodging at the hotel, 
hoping every hour for a steamboat. "We ate and 
slept, and rose in the morning and ate again, and 
speculated upon the probability of getting off by 
the river at all. Just as we concluded to go out in 
search of a conveyance by land, we heard the puff- 
ing and saw the smoke of a boat. We hastened 
down to the bluff, and there lay the "Fox" — a 
little, dirty, wheezing, asthmatic stern - wheeler, 
bound for Il^apoleon, the place to which we wished 
to go. To go or not to go, was the question. It 
was hard to settle. The captain was reluctant to 
take us — advised us to wait for another boat ; but 
our time was precious, other chances very uncer- 
tain, and we determined to try the Fox. I was in 
favor of any thing rather than another day's ride 
in an Arkansas trick. The material question with 
me was. Can I stand straight in the cabin, stretch 
full length in the berth, and find room in the day- 
time to change my position ? I felt that my limbs 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 233 

were entitled to rest after their long confinement, 
and any thing in which there was "scope and 
verge" enough for change and motion would suit 
for a time, being a change for the better. Having 
satisfied ourselves that we could stand up, lie 
down, move about, we took passage, in defiance 
of dirt, smoke, and slow motion. We found a 
Frenchman or two for fellow-passengers. While 
taking on some cotton, we bought a bushel of 
pecan-nuts to crack and eat, when we had nothing 
else to do ; and thus provided, we floated down the 
Arkansas. In size, convenience, and general ar- 
rangement, our little craft bore about the same 
reltition to a first-class steamer that a wheelbarrow 
bears to a regular stage-coach. But the privilege 
of stretching oneself was such a luxury, that we 
congratulated one another on our escape from kind 
tricks. When, at night, the rain began, and signs 
of a long wet spell were all about us, we really felt 
as if the little Fox were a refuge. 

The river had been very high, but was falling. 
On the second day we passed a large boat, which, 
during the freshet, had run upon a sand-bank, and 
had been left by the retreating waters high and 
dry. Just after we had passed, one of our cylin- 
der-heads blew off, and we had to lie by till the 
piece could be sent a mile or more to a blacksmith- 



234 INCIDENTS OF "WESTERN TRAVEL. 

shop. Some six liours were lost in this way. 
"Wlien the headpiece came hack, the awkward en- 
gineer broke it again, and another trip to the shop 
was neces&ary. By this time we were restless, 
impatient, nervous. ^ear sundown, the news 
came up that the damage was repaired. Well, 
now we move. A little withered Frenchman, who 
had been very quiet, hearing the paddles turn once 
more, came out, looked around, and sighing as 
though his last hope had fled — ''Ah me I now we 
is to have de fogs'' — and sure enough "de fogs" 
brought on a premature night, and so we cast 
anchor and lons^ed for dav. 

Soon after we entered the Mississippi river, *^e 
met a boat going to Memphis. Brother Watson 
hailed her, bade us farewell, and left us to float 
downward to Xapoleon. We reached that j)lace 
just as the '-H. M. Wright," a noble boat, was 
ringing her bell to leave for Xew Orleans. We 
were soon transferred from one boat to the other. 
As we entered the magniflcent saloon, the French- 
man turned to me and exclaimed, with rapture in 
every feature, "Why, we could put de leetle Fox 
ia here too." 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 235 



LETTER XXVIII. 

RECRUITS — GAMBLERS — VICKSBURG — GEN. m'MACKIN's HO- 
TEL BILL OF FARE THOMASTOWN NEW-FOUND KIN 

IRA BIRD MISSISSIPPI CONFERENCE WORN-OUT LANDS 

MUD-WAGON — CAPSIZED — A BLIND DRIVER. 

We found on board tlie H. M. Wright, wliicli is 
a fine steamer, a great crowd. Among the rest, 
several officers of Walker's army, and a company 
of recruits, mostly very young men. From the 
exhibition they made of themselves, they will not 
much improve the morals of Xicaragua, whatever 
else they may do for the new republic. 

We reached Yicksburg about four o'clock in the 
morning. Rising at that early hour, I was sur- 
prised to find not a few wdio had spent the night in 
gambling. Among the party were some who dur- 
ing the day afiected to be sober, sedate gentle- 
men, and who, I learned, at home contrived to 
maintain the character of praiseworthy citizens. 
Yet here they were midnight gamblers, fleecing 
the green boys who amid smoke and liquor were 



236 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

wasting the substance of their fathers' life-long 
industry. Prodigal youths ! — veteran hypocrites ! 
The serpents and their victims ! The heart is 
deceitful and desperately wicked. Heaven save the 
young men of the land from the wiles of their 
seniors in depravity ! 

On landing, we went to the hotel of General 
McMackin, who has the reputation of being the 
politest man in the Union. AVhen we went down 
to breakfast, I was much amused by the novel 
mode the General has of informing his guests what 
has been provided for them. In one corner of the 
spacious dining-hall there is a counter on which 
the products of the kitchen are spread. There 
stands ''mine host," knife and fork in hand, and 
in tones peculiar to himself he cries — ''Xice turlie'ij 
— hash — cold ham — fresh sausages — beefsteak, the best 
in the icorld ;" and then, addressing the waiters, he 
will say, " Hand round the rolls — hurry up the hot 
cakes;" and all his various directions worked into 
a sort of song ; and were it not that the tune is a 
nondescript, one might imagine that the old Roman 
fashion of combining music and feasting had been 
revived on the banks of the Mississippi. This 
plan is a substitute for the printed bills of fare, now 
common in all the best city hotels. He says, I 
understand, that the reason he adopted this unique 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 237 

method was, that some years ago he kept a public 
house in Jackson, and many of his boarders were 
members of the Legislature, and could not read, 
so he had to call out for their information. Findins: 
it cheap and easy, he had continued it. Soon after 
breakfast the Rev. C. K. Marshall came down and 
transferred us to his hospitable mansion. 

The Sabbath was devoted to preaching, and on 
Monday we took the cars for Canton. T^e arrived 
after dark, and in a heavy rain. Having picked 
up several preachers on the route, we found no 
little difficulty in obtaining conveyances to Kosci- 
usko, still forty miles distant. We succeeded at 
last, and set out under the pledge to be carried 
through in the day. But rain, mud, high waters, 
defeated us. Just at night we reached a creek 
which was swimming; our carriage, too, broke 
down ; and in a heavy shower we got out to foot 
it, a mile or more, to Thomastown. After diligent 
search, we found a log on which we could cross, 
and so, picking our way every man for himself, we 
took up the line of march. The carriage and bag- 
gage we left to come over in the morning. 

On reaching the village, we took refage in a 
house of entertainment kept by Mr. Cotton. He 
proved to be a warm-hearted, clever old Hardshell 
Baptist. When we were all (eight in number) 



238 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

seated around a rousing fire, trying to dry onr gar- 
ments, our host inquired, "Are you all preachers?" 
He was answered affirmatively. 

" Mercy upon me ! I thought there were enough 
passed here yesterday to take the country. Ai-e 
there any more behind ?" 

"0 yes, several on the other side of the creek." 

" TTell, well, I never saw the like before. Where 
is that man you call George Pierce ? I want to see 
him : my wife is his cousin.'' 

"When I was pointed out to him, he examined 
me with a critic's eye, as though he expected to 
see the horns of the Beast, or the spokes of the 
Ii'on TTheel. Satisfied from his inspection that I 
was not dangerous, he led me into another room 
and introduced me to mv cousin. Xever havinor 
met before, of course there were many questions to 
ask and answer, of the various branches of our 
tribe. So our night's adventure turned out a very 
pleasant affair. 

Instead of waiting for the carriage in the morn- 
ing, I borrowed a horse from my new-found kin, 
and, accompanied by one of the boys, I started 
for Kosciusko. I overtook a great many of the 
brethren, and among the rest old Ira Bird, as he 
is called. He has long been superannuated, but 
was going up to Conference to take work again. 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 239 

He travelled tlie Appalacliee Circuit wlieii I was a 
little boy, and he seemed to rekindle the fires of 
his youth, as he talked with me of the incidents of 
these days. This veteran travels in the old style, 
and would as soon think of backsliding as of 
giving up his saddle-bags. Although well mounted 
myself, I found it difficult to keep up with him. 
I was eager to reach the £Jonference in time, and 
the fiery spirit which warms his old body was but 
obeying its native impulses; and on we went, 
leaving all the rest to follow as best they might. 

Despite our haste, we were a little behind time. 
The preachers, aware of our circumstances, had 
met and adjourned. It was soon arranged to meet 
again, and the first day's w^ork was done. I shall 
not soon forget the comfortable quarters I found 
at the house of Mr. Thompson. The Lord reward 
him in both worlds ! The Mississippi Conference 
at Kosciusko may be known as the rainy Confer- 
ence. Day and night the showers fell. The Sab- 
bath, however, was a sunbright, balmy day. At 
night the rain commenced again, and continued 
with slight intermissions to the close at noon on 
Tuesday, the 30th of November. 

Dr. Hamilton, the Secretary of the Tract Society, 
and Brother McTyeire, the Editor of the l^ew 
Orleans Advocate, were with us at this Conference, 



240 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

and proposed to accompany me to Alabama. Bad 
roads, higli waters, suspended stages, made the 
choice of routes quite a problem. After many 
inquiries and long debate, we concluded that the 
longest way would be the quickest passage. So we 
made arrangements to go to Lexington, and there 
to take stage for Holly Springs. 

The brethren Hamilton and McTyeire were in 
one vehicle, Owen, George and myself in another. 
"We stopped to dine with Brother Harrington, and 
as we were crossing the country by neighborhood- 
paths rather than roads, we had to obtain very 
minute directions. We got a written way-bill, and 
as we often reached a point where many ways met, 
it was amusing to see us all halted, while one or 
more examined the map of directions. Without 
the paper, we should most certainly have been lost. 
I have read of the pursuit of knowledge under 
difficulties, and, without doubt, we learned very 
laboriously/. After dark a little we reached Lexing- 
ton, and found the stage would leave at four 
o'clock A. M. 

Before we move again, I will say that I was no 
little surprised to find the portion of Mississippi 
over which I passed, very much worn and ex- 
hausted. Get away from the river, and you find 
old fields, gullies, numerous, deep, and any thing 



IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 241 

but comely. Many places have an old, forsaken 
look, reminding one of some of the most dilapi- 
dated portions of Georgia. 'New countries will 
wear out, after all, especially under the same mis- 
erable system of tillage which has marred the 
older Southern States. 

In the morning, before daybreak, we were 
crowded into what they very properly call a iniul- 
wagon. There were nine of us, and no little bag- 
gage, and away we sped at the lowest gait com- 
patible with what is called progress. "We had to 
work up hill and down hill, and the only matter of 
congratulation among us was, that we did not have 
to carry a rail. ^Tien we reached the breakfast- 
house. Brother McTyeire, whose taste is cultivated 
and judgment prompt and clear, declined to eat, 
and concluded to walk on. The speed of the stage 
may be guessed when I say that we did not over- 
take him under eight miles. To the credit, how- 
ever, of the stage-line, it ought to be known that 
his locomotive powers are a little extra. His 
figure is of the most approved model for a long 
race. 

Soon after taking him up, we reached Carrollton, 
a very picturesque town, vrith. some neat and taste- 
ful private residences. As the stage stopped to 

deliver the mail and change horses, we all sought 
11 



242 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

relief in a walk of two or three miles. Weary, 
sore, and dinnerless, we travelled on till night, 
when we halted at a log-cabin for supper. The 
signs of neglect and discomfort, within and with- 
out, made the meal, which was good in material, 
well cooked, and abundant in quantity, a very 
agreeable surprise. 

With a new driver, fresh horses, but the same 
old wagon, we set out in the darkness for Grenada. 
We had not gone more than a mile or two before 
we capsized. The night was cold; we were all 
wrapped up in cloaks and blankets, the curtains 
all fast, and we lay in pi, or rather in strata, pri- 
mary, secondary, and tertiary. A general inquiry, 
^'Anybody hurt?" a common answer, "Ko:" then 
a hearty laugh ; and all taking things very quietly, 
till a Mississippi Judge, who lay under Brother 
Owen and another, began to make signs of dis- 
tress. The point of egress was small, and relief to 
the Judge, "like the good time coming," was slow 
in its approaches. Finally we were all out — none 
broken or bruised: the driver made his apology, 
we righted the wagon, resumed our seats, and, 
rode uneasily the rest of that stage. To increase 
apprehension, we found out that our driver was 
unacquainted with the road, and was nearly blind. 
We put a man with eyes by his side, and after 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 243 

many outs and ins, we readied Grenada. From 
this point there were two routes, one by Memphis, 
the other by Oxford and Holly Springs. A coun- 
cil was held : Brother Owen concluded to lie over 
till morning and take the Memphis route : the rest 
of us determined to adhere to the original plan. 
He went to bed, and we took the stage. The inci- 
dents of that night and the next two days demand 
special notice. 




244 INCIDEXTS or WESTERN TRAVEL. 



LETTEE XXIX. 

REALIZATION OF fOREBODINGS — PERSEVERANCE REWARDED 

ALMOST A DINNER DISTRESSING CASUALTIES HOLLY 

SPRINGS. 

On going out to take our places, we found a 
regular coacli ; and if the good people of Grenada 
liad not given us sucli terrible accounts of tlie 
road, we should Have felt ourselves greatlv im- 
proved in circumstances, ^e were assured of 
trouble, and verily we found it. The night was 
dark, the road one long mud-hole, the driver new, 
unacquainted with the teams, timid withal, and in 
nine hours we travelled sixteen miles. After a good 
deal of muttering and complaint, of regret that 
this route was chosen, and many evil prophecies of 
delay, failures to connect, and so on, we resigned 
ourselves to the chances, and went to nodding. 
In the darkness, by and by, there was a jolt, and a 
crash, and a dead pause. 

"What's the matter now?" 



INCIDENTS OF AVESTERN TRAVEL. 245 

" Get out, gentlemen, and help me, if you 
please." 

With reluctance we unwrap and step forth. 
We find ourselves out of the road and in a ditch. 
]^ow for rails and prizing ! At it we go. After 
much heaving and setting, we raise the front 
wheels to a level ; the driver mounts his hox, gives 
the word to his horses — they jerk one at a time, 
and down comes the coach again ! Once more 
we raise it up. IsTow the horses refuse to pull at 
all. Some of the passengers despair — give up; 
others, shivering with cold, propose to make a fire 
and camp till morning; others of us insist on 
renewed efforts. Another vigorous trial, and the 
difficulty is overcome. 

"Walk up the hill, if you please." It is done. 
We take our seats and move along slowly. After 
a mile or two the driver halts his team : " Gentle- 
men, there's something the matter with the coach : 
she don't move right, somehow." Out we go 
again. "Light the lamp, and let us see what's the 
matter." On examination, it was found that the 
king-holt had heen hroken by the concussion in 
the ditch, and that the body had fallen from the 
bolster on the coupling-pole. Here was a scrap'e. 
To rectify, required skill and strength. After 
many abortive plans and efforts, the work was 



246 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

done. Xow for a few more ejaculations on the 
folly of coming this way. Brothers Hamilton and 
McTjeire, disciplined from the outset to this route, 
would jeer me for being persuaded to adopt it. 
I was on the defensive all the way. Hamilton 
would show \> J figures, based on distance and time, 
that it was the very worst thing we could have 
done. McTyeire, with a sigh, would concentrate 
his regrets by a sententious recapitulation of the 
mishaps behind and the prospects ahead, and wind 
up with a look which seemed to say, " Catch me 
on another ram's-horn route!" I would try to 
cheer them vnXh. the hope that we should reach 
Tuskegee in time — that we were improving our 
l^TLOwledge of geography, and learning to shift for 
ourselves amid the difficulties of life. But Hamil- 
ton was sick and nei^ous, McTyeire was disap- 
pointed in a visit to his friends, and the best 
speech I could make left them regretful and dis- 
consolate. 

We took a cheerless breakfast at Coffeeville, 
walked a mile to stretch and get warm, spent the 
morning amid the usual delays, and about eleven 
mired down in a creek swamp, and got out to work 
in mud and water. As all could not work at one 
wheel, McTyeire and I walked ahead, and stopped 
to rest upon a narrow bridge. Presently the driver 



INCIDENTS OF WESTEKN TRAVEL. 24:7 

reined up liis horses for a pull ; tlie leaders did 
their best — every trace broke — they were frightened 
and ran away ! 

The horses were obli2:ed to cross the brido'o, and 
by the time they reached it, seemed infuriate with 
the panic : the broken traces were flying at every 
bound, and we were in peril. Our only chance 
was to get on the outer edge and fTatten ourselves 
into the least possible space. The maddened 
steeds passed us without injury, and as they fled 
through the swamp on the other side of the creek, 
I too felt that all was lost. McTyeire at last found 
some relief to his burdened spirits in a hearty 
laugh at my blank, despairing countenance. Pre- 
sentlv, a man came alono^ with an ox-team, and we 
got him to hitch on, and pull out the stage. By 
this time we heard that the runaway horses were 
hung in a tree-top and brought to a halt. So we 
sent. after them, and while the driver was repairing 
the harness, McTyeire and myself concluded to 
travel on, telling those we left that we would wait 
for them somewhere in the road. We walked till 
we were tired, and called at a farm-house and asked 
for dinner. We were enjoying ourselves most 
luxuriously when the stage was announced. " Tell 
them to hold on — we must finish this operation." 
We had worked the livelong night, and more than 



2-8 IXCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

half the day ; walked, in all, about fifteen miles, 
and our appetites were ravenous, and the meat was 
savory. 

"My friend," said Brother McTyeire, "go out 
and invite them all in : I know they are hungiy." 

" Tell them the dinner is fine — the very best we 
have had," said I. 

In the mean time we were doing our best. 

"Another piece of that ham, if you please, 
ma'am." 

" Have you another cup of coffee ?" 

"Plenty, sir." 

" The driver says he will not wait, gentlemen." 

" This is the finest corn-bread, the freshest but- 
ter," said McTyeire. 

"The stage is starting, gentlemen." 

"Let us go, McTyeire, I am tired of walking." 

" I suppose we must ; but this is too bad 1" 

By way of revenge on our impatient friends, we 
described the dinner with the most appetite-pro- 
voking particularity ; told them how refreshed we 
were ; jeered them on their empty stomachs, and 
predicted a late supper and a poor one. 

Finally we reached the last stage-stand on the way 
to Oxford. Just as we refitted and were ready for 
a new start, the snow began, and as I had taken a 
seat on the outside, I saw and felt all the fury of 



INCIDENTS OP WESTERN TRAVEL. 249 

the storm. My black blanket was very soon a 
blanket of another color. After dark we rode into 
Oxford, and as we expected to go right on, the 
driver by request took us around to show us the 
town. Soon after our arrival, we were informed 
that the Tallahatchee river was impassable, and the 
road to it too bad for night-travel, and that we 
must lie over till morning. Dr. Hamilton sighed : 
Brother McTyeire cried, ^'Detention — detention.'' 
" Let us take a room and go to bed. In sleep we 
will forget all our troubles," said I. 

Before sunrise we were once more under way. 
Sure enough, when we reached the river, it was 
swollen, and the rope was gone ; and the ferryman 
said we must go ten miles out of our way, or go 
over two at a time in a canoe, and wait for a stage 
from Holly Springs. The latter plan was adopted. 
Dr. Hamilton and I went over first, kindled a fire, 
and encamped. When all were over. Brother Mc- 
Tyeire and I determined to set out afoot. We had 
a swamp a mile wide to cross, and found no little 
difiiculty in finding a way through it. By tacking 
and turning, crossing lagoons on logs, and wading 
a little, we reached dry land, and started for Holly 
Springs. 

We travelled three miles — met the stage — gave 
the driver directions where to find our friends ; 



250 IXCIDEXTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

and as noon had come, we concluded to make 
another experiment in the way of dinner. AVe 
stopped at a fine-looking house on the roadside — ■ 
were kindly invited in — ^dinner was ordered, and 
we undertook to improve the interval by conversa- 
tion with our host. He proved to he a Georgian — 
knew my father well, and seemed glad of our visit. 
TTe found him a man of many sorrows. In the 
midst of wealth he was desolate. Bereavement 
had broken him up. TTithin the year he had lost 
his wife and two grown children ; and another, 
who had gone to Texas, he supposed from his last 
intelligence was dead also. A few days before, a 
tornado had swept his plantation, overturned his 
barns, gin-houses, and out-houses generally, killed 
some negroes, maimed others for life, and spread 
ruin around. There he was, a gray -haired old 
man, amid the wreck of his plans and his hopes, 
mourning the absence of his loved ones. We 
talked with him of providence and grace, and 
pray that his afflictions may be sanctified to his 
salvation. Again, as we sat down to dine and 
were beginning to enjoy our meal, the stage-horn 
blew an impatient blast. We dispatched a messen- 
ger, begging for a brief dispensation, but Pharaoh 
knew not Joseph, and he would show no favor. 
So we had to deny ourselves a refreshing repast, 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 251 

and — ^what in this instance we regretted more — 
leave our grief-stricken host without prayer. In 
our hearts we remembered him, and trust our 
Father in heaven for the answer. 

This portion of Mississippi shows the marks of 
hard usasre. It is a fine farmins: countrv, but has 
been better. 

We reached Holly Springs before night. To 
this point we had been looking as the terminus of 
our stage-travel, and the end of our travelling- 
troubles. But, alas ! we found that the heavy rains 
had made a breach in the railroad, and that the 
tirae the cars would start again was very uncertain. 
"We planned, and talked, and bewailed our deten- 
tion, and then went to sleep. The next day was the 
Sabbath. We reported ourselves to the brethren, 
and in the forenoon I tried to preach. At three 
o'clock P. M. the cars left, and we went down to 
LaGrange, twenty miles, in order to take the train 
from Memphis, early in the morning. 



252 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL, 



LETTEE XXX. 

ANOTHER BREACH — ■ BUZZARDS' ROOST — AGRICULTTRAL 

ABUSES — TUSKEGEE THE ALABAMA CONFERENCE: ITS 

CHARACTERISTICS — PLEASANT INCIDENTS — HOME AGAIN 
THE END. 

Whei^t the train from Mempliis came along on 
tlie morning of the eighth of December, we once 
more set out for the Alabama Conference, Ent^ 
alas ! another breach in the road arrested our pro- 
gress, and we were constrained to take stage and 
creep along bad roads for forty miles. An afternoon 
and night were consumed in this slow travel, and 
about daybreak we reached Buzzards* Roost, where 
we shook hands with the stage and "shed not a 
tear." 

Buzzards' Boost! what a name for a beautiful 
country ! This valley of the Tennessee will com- 
pare favorably with any farming region of the 
South or South-west, Level, fertile, and very 
generally under cultivation, it looks like one vast 
plantation. Long -settled and hard -worked, the 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 253 

sigli3 of exhaustion are very apparent. The great 
staple — King Cotton — -wears the earth, and, while 
clothing the people, strips the ground to naked- 
ness. Where once the plant grew like a tree, the 
overtasked and weary soil can only produce a 
stunted shrub. The scattered habitations indicate 
the wealth of the proprietors, and they now loom 
up amid the naked fields like monuments com- 
memorative of what has been. These lands in 
good seasons yet produce remunerative crops, and 
might easily be restored to their original fertility. 
The Southern people, however, obstinately cling to 
the notion that it is easier and more profitable 
to fell the forest, and work virgin lands, than to 
fertilize the old fields. When the country is 
older, and the population more settled, a change 
of policy will become a necessity, and practice will 
reverse the theory. There is too much new land 
at present for the introduction of this vivifying 
experiment. The day will come, and a distant 
posterity will wonder at the reckless abuse of the 
earth by the generations past. 

After the toil, weariness, and detentions of the 
last few days, it was cheering to learn that the 
roads through Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama 
were uninjured by the recent rains, and that the 
trains were regular in their trips. The only 



254 INCIDENTS or WESTERN TRAVEL. 

material drawback upon onr enjoyment, under 
these circumstances, was the fact that, after all 
our efforts, we should be a few hours behindhand. 
Conscious of having done our best, and assured 
that the brethren would not suspect us of neg- 
lect, we surrendered ourselves to the luxury of 
memory and hope. "We remembered our troubles 
"as waters that pass away," and, hoping that the 
clouds would not return after the rain, we rejoiced 
in our deliverance. 

About noon of Wednesday we rode into Tuske- 
gee. The light of many a familiar face beamed 
upon us, and the cordial welcome of the brethren 
made us feel how pleasant it is for those whose 
hearts and aims and hopes are .one,~ to meet, and 
mingle in social Christian fellowship. 

The Alabama Conference is a large body, having 
some striking characteristics. There is an unusual 
proportion of young men — men in the prime and 
vigor of life. Gray heads are scarce — the old 
men look fresh. The average of talent is fine — 
the inequality not so marked as in most other 
Conferences. In its organization, plans, and spirit, 
some leading minds have been at work. Their 
impress is visible. But the large majority have 
been brought up to the level of their counsellors 
and guides, and now, without jealousy or the 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 255 

collisions of rivalry, tliey all work together. The 
spirit of the body is a power. Every interest of 
the Conference is to each preacher a personal 
affair. He feels and works for it, as men com- 
monly do for themselves. They are members one 
of another. Reputation is common stock. What- 
ever great or good thing is done, becomes part 
of the common inheritance. They do not exalt 
Brother Z. or Dr. X., and leave him in isolated 
grandeur to be admired ; but if either has wi'ought 
a wonder upon the eaith, the Alabama Conference 
must have the glory. ''All we are brethren." 
The family is one, and the rejoicing over success 
is mutual. This feeling might run into excess, 
and become an evil ; but properly regulated, it is a 
lever of tremendous force. It is a resultant power, 
supplemental of the individual energies of the 
preachers, and is bringing — nay, has brought — this 
young Conference into the front rank of every 
department of usefulness. The preachers have 
diffused the sanie spirit largely among ihe people. 
They sympathize and cooperate with each other. 
Hence their large missionary collections, their 
thriving University project, their well-balanced 
financial sheet, at their Conference sessions. 

TVliile we all should cultivate broad, catholic 
sympathies, and rejoice even though others excel 



2o6 IKCIDEKTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

lis, I like that spirit Avliicli identifies a man with 
his own Conference, and makes him strain himself 
to bring the body to which he belongs ahead 
with the foremost. Those men who just breathe 
along, content to be tolerated in society, as not 
being exactly a nuisance, and yet neither think 
nor plan nor work for the general good, are an 
incubus — a drawback upon the energies of their 
betters. The same thing holds true of bodies 
of men. I confess to a feeling of impatience 
and disgust with those drowsy, yawning men, 
especially in the Church, who never feel the 
quickening impulse of a generous Christian emu- 
lation, and who, when reminded that they are in 
the background, drawl out, "Let well enough 
alone," and disparage the progress and zeal of 
others, by uncharitable insinuations and pious pro- 
phecies of their future ruin. 

The rapid development of the Alabama Con- 
ference is an encouraging example of what may 
be accomplished by ministerial brethren, Avorking 
intelligently, harmoniously, and with one heart, 
in the same great cause. May they live and 
prosper yet more abundantly ! 

Tuskegee, where we met, is a beautiful town, 
with an intelligent population. Churches abound, 
and well-ororanized Female Colles^es — one belong- 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 257 

ing to the Baptists, tlie other to the Methodists ; 
and with two weekly papers representing the polit- 
ical parties of the State, the community is w^ell 
provided for in all respects. 

The Conference session was pleasant and pro- 
fitable. Several topics of grave interest outside 
of the regular business, but pertinent to the 
interests of the Church, came before us, were 
seriously discussed, and satisfactorily disposed of. 

In the examination of character, a pleasant little 
incident occurred, which I will here relate. The 
tale has its moral. 

The church in which we assembled was crowded 
from day to day*Slith interested spectators. On one 
occasion two Baptist ministers were introduced 
to me, presented to the Conference, and invited 
to be seated in our midst. Xot long after this cere- 
mony — in the regular order — a brother's name was 
called, and the usual question propounded, ''Is 
there any thing against him?" The Presiding 
Elder, in representing him, remarked that he had 
succeeded well in his circuit — a circuit hitherto 
regarded as a very unpromising field for Method- 
ism. Among other e^ddences of his zeal and in- 
fluence, he stated that at one place the preacher 
had taken several Baptists into our Church. 

A brother rose and said " that statement needed 



258 INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 

explanation : it might be a grave objection to tbe 
passage of the preacher's character. If he had 
been stealing into other people's folds to j^roselyie, 
unsettling the minds of members about their 
Church relations, he should vote against him, be- 
cause this transferring members from one Church 
to another was a great evil : no good came out of 
it : it was not promoting Christianity : the Church 
of Christ was not extended hj any such operation : 
it was the preacher's business to get the people of 
the world converted ; such cases were accessions to the 
Church — the other plan was a cheat : one Church 
might count more, but the friends of Christ were 
not multiplied." To these sentiments there was a 
hearty approving response. Such was the mind of 
the Conference : the Presiding Elder said he would 
explain : the preacher had done nothing wrong — he 
had not been proselyting — but in the neighborhood 
where these Baptists lived, there had been a great 
revival, and when the doors of the Church were 
opened, these Baptists joined of their own free 
will. Among them, said the Elder, was a preacher, 
whose remark on the occasion explains it all. Af- 
ter he had joined, a friend said to him, "Why, I 
thought you were a Hardshell.'' " So I was," said 
the preacher ; " but these Methodists have ringfired me, 
and burnt off my shell, and I could but join them." 



INCIDENTS OF WESTERN TRAVEL. 259 

Here there was a liappy laugh — a gush of good- 
humor. Our Baptist brethren seemed to enjoy the 
denouement as well as the rest. 

Conference ended, I went to Columbus to make 
my annual visit to my father and sisters — spent a 
day and night, and then set out for home — " sweet 
home." In due time I arrived, and found all well 
and glad to see me. Thank God for home and 
friends and rest ! So I felt and feel. 0, if after 
absence, weariness, anxiety, labor, it be so sweet 
to repose a while among those we love, what to 
earth's tired pilgrim must be the rest of heaven — 
the raptures of that long-sought home ! May the 
writer and his readers in due season reach that 
better land, and dwell in bliss for ever ! 



TH E END. 



uHitations 



OF THE 

METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, SOUTH, 



LIFE OF ARMINIUS. 



LIFE OF JAMES AEMINIUS, D.D., Professor of Theology in the Uni- 
versity of Leyden, Holland. Translated from the Latin of Casper 
Brandt, Remonstrant Minister, Amsterdam, by John Guthrie, A.M. 
With an Introduction by T. 0. Summers, D.D. 12mo. $1 00. 

This masterly work is that alluded to by Mosheim, in his Ecclesiastical History. 

SUMMERS ON BAPTISM. 

BAPTISM : A Treatise on the Nature, Perpetuity, Subjects, Adminis- 
trator, Mode, and Use of the Initiating Ordinance of the Christian 
Church. With an Appendix, containing Strictures on Dr. Howell's 
"Evils of Infant Baptism," plates illustrating the Primitive 
Mode of Baptism, etc. By T. 0. Summers, D.D. 12mo, pp. 252. 
65 cents. 
This book is got up in handsome style. A copy ought to be in every library. 

Competent judges — among them the Bishops and editors of the Church — have 

spoken of this work in unfiualifled terms of approval. 

BEREAVED PARENTS CONSOLED. 

BEEEAVED PARENTS CONSOLED. By Rev. John Thornton. Care- 
fully revised: with an Introduction and Selection of Lyrics for 
the Bereaved. By T. 0. Summers, D.D. 18mo, pp. 144. Gilt, 40 
cents. Muslin, 30 cents. In 24mo — Muslin, 25 cents. 

This is an elegant volume. Its contents are adapted to administer comfort to the 
Jacobs and Rachels wjio weep for their children because " they are not." They will 
scarcely '-refuse to be comforted" by the consolatory topics so judiciously presented 
in this excellent work. 

BETTER LAND. 

BETTER LAND ; OR, THE CHRISTIAN EMIGRANT'S GUIDE TO 
HEAVEN. Showing the nakedness of the land of spiritual Egypt, 
the pleasant journey through this wilderness, and the glorious 
inheritance of settlers in the celestial Canaan. By Jeremiah 
Dodsworth. 12mo. 80 cents. 

This is a reprint of a work which has had an extensive circulation in England; 
and, from its subjec^matter and "antique and singular style," bids fair to Lave a 
considerable run in this country. It is good to the use of edifying. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE M. E. CHTJECH, SOUTH. 



WATSON'S DICTIONARY. 

A BIBLICAL AND THEOLOGICAL DICTIONAEY: Explanatory of 
the History, Manners, and Customs of the Jews and neighboring 
Nations. With an Account of the most remarkable places and 
persons mentioned in Sacred Scripture, an Exposition of the prin- 
cipal doctrines of Christianity, and Notices of Jewish and Chris- 
tian sects and heresies. By Richard Watson. A new edition: 
revised and enlarged by T. 0. Summers, D.D. 8vo, pp. 1113. 
With New Biblical Atlas and Scripture Gazetteer, containing ten 
maps and two steel plates. $4 50. 

In this edition multitudes of tj-pographical and other errors which are found in 
previous editions have been corrected — additions have been made to many of the 
articles, and hundreds of original articles have been added. The new matter, winch 
is distinguished by brackets, consists of biblical, theological, and ecclesiastical arti- 
cles, embodying accounts of the sects which have originated since Mr. Watson's day, 
and of others overlooked by him, showing the present condition of all denominations 
as far as possible, and presenting the most available results of the recent explora- 
tions in Palestine and other countries mentioned in the Bible. A vast amount of 
labor has been expended upon the work, which makes a magnificent octavo of 1113 
pages, uniform with the Institutes. 

WATSON'S INSTITUTES. 

THEOLOGICAL INSTITUTES ; or, a View of the Evidences, Doctrines, 
Morals, and Institutions of Christianity. By Eichard Watson. 
Edited by T. 0. Summers, D.D. 8vo, pp. 771. $3 00. 

Tliis new and elegant edition has been brought out with immense labor. Numer- 
ous errors, found in previous editions, have been corrected in this: the quotations 
from Scripture have been verified and corrected: a complete Scriptural Index has 
been added; also, a very copious Analytical Index, and an Index of Greek terms. 
The tj-pe, though not large, is clear and legible, being leaded, in double columns. 
The Xew York Christian Advocate and Journal says : •• We acknowledge gratefully 
the obligation of both the Church and the country to the Southern Book Concern for 
a new and unique edition of Watson's Institutes. Unique we call it, for the whole of 
that elaliorate work is comprised in one noble octavo. It is in double columns, on 
excellent paper, and the type, instead of being inconveniently small, is precisely of 
that medium size and clear impression as to render the volume suitable for almost 
any eyes. The publishers have certainly hit a capital experiment in getting out this 
edition, .ind it cannot but be universally satisfactory. The editor. Dr. Summers, de- 
serves special credit for the scholarly manner in which he has performed his task." 

LIFE OF JOHN WESLEY. 

LITE OF REV. JOHN WESLEY, A.M., Sometime Fellow of Lincoln 
College, Oxford. To which are subjoined Observations on Southey's 
Life of Wesley; being a Defence of the Character, Labors, and 
Opinions of the Founder of Methodism, against the misrepresenta- 
tions of that publication. By Richard Watson. A new edition, 
with Notes by T. 0. Summers, D.D. 12mo. $1. 

It is scarcely necessary to say the '-'Life" is the most judicious biography of 
Wesley, and the '• Observations" are the most able defence of Wesley and of Method- 
ism ever written. In answering Southey, Mr. Watson answered a thousand smaller 
men, wlio are still repeating his misrepresentations. This edition has been carefully 
revised from the last London edition, and a few editorial notes have been added to 
fit it more fully to our own country and time. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE M. E. CHURCH, SOUTH. 



CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. 

CHRISTIAN THEOLOGY. By Adam Clarke, LL.D., F.A.S. Selected 
from his published and unpublished Writings, and systematically 
arranged. With a Life of the Author. By Samuel Dunn. 75 cts. 
A carefully levised eJition of this great wurk. 

LIFE OF JOHN FLETCHER. 

LITE OF THE REV. JOHN W. DE LA FLECHERE. By Joseph Ben- 
son. 60 cents. 

LIFE OF MRS. FLETCHER. 

LIFE OF MRS. MARY FLETCHER, Consort and Relict of the Rev. 
John Fletcher, Vicar of Madeley, Salop. By Henry Moore. 60 
cents. 
A cheap and convenient edition of these two Methodist classics. 

FOSTER'S WORKS. 

ESSAYS IN A SERIES OF LETTERS. By John Foster. 18mo, pp. 
335. 50 cents. 

These letters were written to the lady who afterward became Mr. Fosters wife. 
"I have read,' says Sir James Mackintosh, "with the greatest admiration, the 
Essays of Foster."' Dr. Chalmers says, "There are passages of amazing depth and 
beauty in his Essays."' The Essay "On Decision of Character" ought to be read once 
a year by every young person. 

LECTURES ON CHRISTIAN MORALS. By John Foster. With an 
Introduction by T. 0. Summers, D.D. 18mo, pp. 334. 50 cents. 

It is enough to say of these Lectures that they were written by the renowned 
author of the "Essays." A biographical account of this great man is given in the 
Introduction. 

GREAT COMMISSION. 

GREAT COMMISSION: OR. THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH CONSTI- 
TUTED AND CHARGED TO CONVEY THE GOSPEL TO THE 
WORLD. By the Rev. John Harris, D.D. With an Introduction 
by T. 0. Summers, D.D. 12mo. $1. 
This masterly work of the late lamented Dr. Harris needs no recommendation. 
The Introduction gives a bird's-eye view of the Missionary operations of the Method- 
ist Church among the people of color in our Southern States, partly as an offset to 
certain passages in the book which are not so well adapted to our meridian and lati- 
tude, and partly a;? a matter of important information. The statistics of the prin- 
cipal missionary societies, noticed by the autlior. are brought down in the Introduc- 
tion to the present time, and a revised and enlarged Index has been appended. 

HEADLANDS OF FAITH. 

HEADLANDS OF FAITH : A Series of Dissertations on the Cardinal 
Truths of Christianity. By the Rev. Joseph Cross, D.D. $1. 

The author saj-s. in his Preface, that "the aim of this volume is to develop, in a 
popular manner, -the truth as it is in Jesus;' uniting, in duo proportion, the ere- 
denda and the agenda of Christianity." lie has succeeded admirably in his design. 
Tlie Dissertations are peculiarly eh.quent. strictly osthodox, and singularly good^to 
the use of edifying. The work is a body of divinity with a soul in it— a very different 
affair from the dry an.itomies which have almo.'st exclnsivply usurped that title. 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE M. E. CHURCH, SOUTH. 

SONGS OF ZION. 

SONGS OF ZION. A Supplement to the Hymn Book of the M. E. 
Church, South. Edited by T. 0. Summers, D.D. 40 cents. 

This work, so loudly called for, has been received with great favor: the press of 
the Church pronounces it just the thing that was in demand. It should everj-whero 
accompany the Hymn Book. 

TRACTS. 

WESLEY'S SERMONS. In four packages. - $1 40 

METHODIST PAMPHLETS FOR THE PEOPLE; 
Package 1. 12 Tracts. Ecclesiastical Series. 

do. 2. 12 Tracts. Doctrinal Series. 

do. 3. 24 Tracts. Anti-Romanist Series. 

do. 4. 12 Tracts. Temperance Series. 

do. 5. 8 Tracts. Baptism Series. 

MISCELLANEOUS TRACTS: 

Package 1. 40 Tracts. 

do. 2. 40 Tracts. 

do. 3. 40 Tracts. 

do. 4. 14 Tracts, 

do. 5. 12 Tracts, 

do. 6. 15 Tracts. 

do. 7. 30 Tracts. 

METHODIST PAMPHLETS FOR THE PEOPLE. Four 
volumes, bound. 
Series 1. Ecclesiastical Series, 
do. 2. Doctrinal Series, 
do. 3. Anti-Romanist Series. 
do. 4. On Temperance and Baptism. 

MISCELLANEOUS TRACTS. Three volumes, bound. 
Series 1. Tracts 1 to 67. 
do. 2. Tracts 68 to 131. 
do. 3. Tracts 132 to 192. 

SERMONS AND ESSAYS. By Ministers of the M. E. Church, 
South. One volume, uniform with the bound volumes of 
Tracts. 60 



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LIBRARY 
CANDLER SCHOOL OF THEOLOGY 

EMORY UNIVERSITY 



I. Library open for reading 8 A. 
M. to 5:30 P. M. and 7 to 10 P. M. 

II. Books may be kept out for two 
weeks. 

III. A fine of two cents per day is 
charged for each book kept overtime.